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Paul A. Solberg, Will G. Hopkins, Gøran Paulsen and Thomas A. Haugen

. Weightlifting and powerlifting are particularly suitable sports to investigate age-related changes in these physiological capabilities. Funato et al 18 observed clear performance differences between weight-matched elite senior (25 [1] y) and college (21 [0.3] y) weightlifters despite no differences in fat

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Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Weverton L. Santos, Ronaldo Kobal and Michael McGuigan

straightforward implementation and proven effectiveness. 6 As a multijoint exercise that mimics numerous sport actions, the BP has been shown to be closely associated with sports performance, 7 highlighting the need for additional research in this field. More specifically, in powerlifting, the competitive

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Chin-Ju Huang and Ian Brittain

The purpose of this study was to explore the multiplicity and complexity of identity construction for elite disabled athletes within the arena of disability sport. This involved in-depth semistructured interviews that explored the experiences of 21 British and Taiwanese elite disabled athletes from the sports of powerlifting and track and field. The results indicate that both societal perceptions based in the medical model of disability and the participants’ impaired bodies play a key role in their identity formation and sense of self-worth. The study also highlights the role that success in international disability sport can have by offering potential for positive subjectivity, a changed self-understanding, and an increased sense of personal empowerment. Finally, the notion of multiple identities also appears to be supported by the research participants’ narratives.

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Lynda B. Ransdell and Christine L. Wells

Do women out-perform men in endurance sports? Are women as strong, pound for pound, as men? Many questions have been raised about the ability of women and men to perform physical tasks equally well. The issue of sex differences and similarities in performance has considerable significance today as women seek physically demanding careers in police-work, fire-fighting, the military, industry, and athletics. As more women participate in recreational and career opportunities formerly open only to men, knowledge about sex differences in response to physical exertion and training becomes increasingly important. In this paper we describes differences between the sexes in athletic performance.

Most performance differences are due to variations in morphological (structural) or physiological characteristics typical of women and men (Wells, 1991). Nevertheless, variations in these characteristics are often as large or larger within each sex as they are between the sexes. The same is true of physical performance. Thus, when the entire population is considered, there are extensive differences in performance within each sex, and considerable overlap in performance between the sexes.

We will base our examination of performance differences on the most outstanding performances of each sex: those exemplified by World Records in athletic events. We seek to answer such questions as: How large are sex differences in world record performances? Can existing performance differences be explained entirely by biological differences between the sexes? Or, are a large portion of these performance differ-ences attributable to sociocultural factors?

We will analyze sex differences in performance relative to the human energy system. This system allows an extraordinary range of mechanisms for neuromuscular coordination and metabolism. Because of this, the human has a virtually unlimited movement repertoire and is capable of movements requiring large bursts of energy over very brief periods of time, as well as movements requiring low levels of energy production over very long periods of time. We will progress from sports that require very high intensity and explosive quality movements such as jumping and power lifting, through the “energy spectrum” to feats of endurance such as marathon running, ultra-distance triathlon, and open-water distance swimming.

Due to our desire to focus this paper on a reasonable amount of data, our analysis will be limited as follows:

1) for sex differences in high intensity-brief duration, explosive per-formance, we will discuss the high jump, long jump, and various mea-sures of strength (powerlifting),

2) for sex differences in high intensity-short duration performance, we will present data on sprint running (100m, 400m) and swimming (100m),

3) for sex differences in moderate intensity-moderate duration performance, we will discuss middle-distance running (1500m, 5000m, 10,000m), and swimming (1500m), and

4) for differences in low intensity-long duration performance, we will discuss the marathon, the "Ironman Triathlon," and open ocean distance swimming.

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Hayden J. Pritchard, Matthew J. Barnes, Robin J. Stewart, Justin W. Keogh and Michael R. McGuigan

was kept consistent for Condition B. Gym-Based Testing In order to establish training loads, participants performed 1RM testing, according to National Strength and Conditioning Association guidelines 15 for the 3 powerlifts (squat, bench press, and deadlift) within 1 week of the first testing session

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Chelsey Klimek, Christopher Ashbeck, Alexander J. Brook and Chris Durall

CrossFit gym using successive and rapid ballistic movements with minimal to no recovery time between movements. A wide variety of high-intensity exercises that include running, rowing, Olympic lifting, powerlifting, and gymnastic exercises were included in the CrossFit training. A physical fitness training

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki 2008 and approved by the ethics committee of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences under the code 1396.933. Participants The study subjects included weightlifting and powerlifting athletes with CLBP who had exercised for at least 3 years 3 times per week and 75

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

-cycle therapy, and that his clinical depression is linked to after effects of use. P5 23, student, UK Amateur powerlifting and personal use Used multiple substances for two cycles a year ago, and experienced side effects. Currently not using and doesn’t want to use; however, admits peer pressure causes him to

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Thomas A. Haugen, Paul A. Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel and Will G. Hopkins

performance in explosive-strength exercises, but publicly available results provided by the International Powerlifting Federation reveal that male (n = 194) and female (n = 157) medalists from the 2004 to 2016 World Championships in powerlifting (all weight classes) were age 30 (6) and 31 (8) years (mean [SD

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

, is a multisport competition conducted annually, which encompasses all branches of the U.S. military. The Warriors Games includes the sports of archery, cycling, indoor rowing, powerlifting, shooting, volleyball, swimming, track and field, and wheelchair basketball. Similar to the tenets of Dr