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Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Niek Pot

drawn from scholarly writing from a variety of disciplines and show that proponents of the concept are not alone in advocating the significant value of this aspect of human nature. Many of these views translate readily into practical values “on the ground,” which relate to work in school. Below are the

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Deirdre M. Harrington, Kieran P. Dowd, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Alan E. Donnelly

The number of steps/minute (i.e., cadence) that equates to moderate intensity in adolescents is not known. To that end, 31 adolescent females walked on a treadmill at 5 different speeds while wearing an ActivPAL accelerometer and oxygen uptake was recorded by indirect calorimetry. The relationship between metabolic equivalents (METs) and cadence was explored using 3 different analytical approaches. Cadence was a significant predictor of METs (r=.70; p<.001). Moderate intensity (3 METs) corresponded to 94 or 114 steps/minute based on the mixed model and ROC analysis, respectively. These two values, and a practical value of 100 steps/minute, were cross-validated on an independent sample of 33 adolescent females during over-ground walking at 3 speeds. The sensitivity and specificity of each value correctly identifying 3 METs were 98.5% and 87.2% for 94 steps/minute, 72.9% and 98.8 for 114 steps/minute and 96.5% and 95.7% for 100 steps/minute. Compromising on a single cadence of 100 steps/minute would be a practical value that approximates moderate intensity in adolescent females and can be used for physical activity interpretation and promotion.

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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong

The purpose of this study was to predict Paralympian swimmers’ happiness as a result of winning 2016 Paralympic medals. Understanding potential antecedents of athletes’ happiness has theoretical and practical value. Medal winners (N = 138) had their facial expressions rated for happiness at the race finish. Three predictors were examined: finish place (i.e., first, second, or third), swimmers’ expectations for race place, and race time. A multiple-regression analysis predicting happiness was significant, F(3, 98) = 3.66, p < .015, accounting for 10% of the variance. Significant beta weights for race place (β = −0.551) and finishing higher than their 2015 world ranking (β = 0.551) indicated that higher-finishing swimmers were happier than lower-finishing swimmers, and swimmers who finished better than their 2015 ranking were happier than swimmers who finished lower than their ranking. The authors also found partial support for the counterfactual-thinking hypothesis for male swimmers and evidence of gender and country differences in happiness.

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Damian Haslett and Brett Smith

One significant barrier to physical activity (PA) for people with disabilities is the lack of access to PA information. The purpose of this study was to explore how access to PA information can be improved for people with disabilities, their carers, and PA-session facilitators. To investigate the flow of PA information within a communication network, principles derived from knowledge translation were used: information audiences, messengers, methods, and effectiveness. Participants included 48 people with disabilities (34 male and 14 female; mean age 30 years), 34 carers, and 12 session facilitators. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results show how communication of PA information can be improved by indicating practical value in understanding individual motivations to PA participation, including credible messengers, using multiple delivery methods, and expanding information networks. Future steps are offered, including practical implications resulting from this study to improve PA information flow within a network.

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Terry J. Housh, Jeffrey R. Stout, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh and Joan M. Eckerson

The purpose of the present study was to determine the validity of near-infrared interactance (NIR) estimates of percent body fat (% fat) using Futrex-5000, Futrex-5000A, and Futrex-1000 instruments in youth wrestlers (age, M ± SD = 11.4 ± 1.5 years) by comparing them to % fat values from underwater weighing. Fifty-eight members of youth wrestling clubs (% fat, M ± SD = 10.7 ± 5.1% fat) volunteered to serve as subjects. The statistical analyses included examination of the constant error (CE), standard error of estimate (SEE), correlation coefficient (r), and total error (TE). The results indicated that the errors (TE = 8.0–16.2% fat) associated with the NIR instruments were too large to be of practical value for estimating % fat in young male athletes. It is recommended that (a) the instrument generated NIR % fat estimates be modified based on the CE values in the present investigation such that the CE = 0, and (b) the modified NIR % fat estimates be cross-validated on independent samples of young male athletes.

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Job Fransen, Adam Baxter-Jones and Stephen Woodcock

blunt tool and of less practical value than the model presented in our manuscript. Furthermore, we were not convinced that such a model would prove to be very stable given the complexity and dimensionality of the dataset and the relatively few longitudinal measurements available. Multiplicative

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Eoin Everard, Mark Lyons and Andrew J. Harrison

reported by the Olympic Committee as a gold standard assessment for lower-limb injuries, in particular acute knee injury. 6 These studies are encouraging, as they highlight a practical value to using the LESS as an injury prediction tool. However, before validity studies are developed, it is important

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Stephen P. Bailey, Julie Hibbard, Darrin La Forge, Madison Mitchell, Bart Roelands, G. Keith Harris and Stephen Folger

, there may be little practical value to these findings. Perhaps more interesting is the suggestion that other substances that stimulate taste receptors in the oral cavity could positively impact physical performance. Conclusions The results of this investigation indicate that neuromuscular performance

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Amanda M. Rymal

have little practical value if we do not test these same ideas under less controlled settings. For example, would Hebert’s design have the same outcome if implemented in a physical education class where students alternate observing each other while learning a soccer kick outside on the school field

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Joey Lightner, Brandon C. Irwin and Matthew Chrisman

integration, directly, these results are of practical value in 2 key ways. Perhaps most importantly, these data can strengthen advocacy efforts to impact policy and practices to maximize the health-enhancing aspects of social relationships. 4 The policy ecosystem impacts the quantity and quality of social