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Practicum in Adapted Physical Activity: A Dewey-Inspired Action Research Project

Øyvind Standal and Gro Rugseth

The purpose of this study was to investigate what adapted physical activity (APA) students learn from their practicum experiences. One cohort of APA students participated, and data were generated from an action research project that included observations, reflective journals, and a focus group interview. The theoretical framework for the study was Dewey’s and Wackerhausen’s theories of reflections. The findings show the objects of students’ reflections, the kind of conceptual resources they draw on while reflecting, and their knowledge interests. In addition, two paradoxes are identified: the tension between reflecting from and on own values, and how practicum as a valued experience of reality can become too difficult to handle. In conclusion, we reflect on how practicum learning can be facilitated.

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Can Practicum Teaching Change Preservice Physical Education Teacher Value Orientations?

Qiao Zhu, Hejun Shen, and Ang Chen

orientations, understanding preservice physical education teachers’ value orientations development could provide us assistance in refining PETE programming. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which practicum teaching, a critical component of teacher training, would change

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Implications of Student Teachers’ Implementation of a Curricular Innovation

Steven Wright, Michael McNeill, Joan Fry, Steven Tan, Clara Tan, and Paul Schempp

This study examined 49 student teachers’ actions and perspectives when implementing a curricular innovation (the tactical games approach). Data were collected via videotaped lessons, interviews, and follow-up questionnaires. Questions for interviews and questionnaires were pilot tested and data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Videotape analysis was facilitated by Noldus’s Observer (4.0) software and was tested for interobserver reliability. Results revealed that pupils were actively engaged for more than half (52%) of class time. The majority of student teachers’ questions were of low order (76%). The greatest challenges student teachers faced were pupils being new to the approach, or lacking skills. The greatest facilitators to implementing the tactical approach were physical education teacher education courses. Student teachers suggested that more opportunities to teach using the tactical approach in schools during methods classes would better prepare them for practicum. A follow-up questionnaire, one year later, determined that 87% of participants were still using the “innovation” in their teaching.

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A Delphi Study of Effective Adapted Physical Education Practicum Experiences

Andrea R. Taliaferro and Sean M. Bulger

The significance of adapted physical education (APE) practicum experiences in undergraduate physical education teacher education (PETE) programs is well documented. Researchers have described these hands-on service-learning opportunities as an essential and integral component of introductory APE

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Development, Management, and Evaluation of Undergraduate Experiential Learning: Recommendations for Best Practices

Melissa Pangelinan, Marc Norcross, Megan MacDonald, Mary Rudisill, Danielle Wadsworth, and James McDonald

Experiential learning via internships, practicums, and research provides undergraduate students with rich opportunities to enhance their knowledge of core concepts in kinesiology. Moreover, these types of experiences increase job-related skills (e.g., leadership development, critical thinking

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Understanding How Preservice Teachers Interpret Early Field Experiences at the Secondary Level

Nicholas S. Washburn, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Christopher Mellor, Caitlin R. Olive, and Adriana Lucero

extrinsically-motivated or unambitious students ( Shen et al., 2009 ). A second important tenet of SDT holds that the social context has a significant influence on individuals’ psychological need satisfaction ( Deci & Ryan, 2008 ; Haerens et al., 2015 ). Within the context of a practicum experience where a PT

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Exploring the Meaning of Practicum Experiences for PETE Students

Samuel R. Hodge, Deborah Tannehill, and Mary Ann Kluge

This phenomenological qualitative study explored the meaning of practicum experiences for physical education teacher education (PETE) students. Participants were 10 PETE students majoring in teaching and enrolled in an introductory adapted physical education course with an inclusion-based practicum requirement. Data were collected from participants’ self-reflective journals and analyzed using thematic analysis procedures (Giorgi, 1985). Eleven themes emerged that reflected the meaning of practicum experiences for these students. Our findings suggest that journaling provides a medium for PETE students to identify issues, address problems, and think critically about best practices.

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Cooperating Teacher Perceptions of and Experiences in the Student Teaching Practicum

Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma

This study examined cooperating teacher (CT) experiences in and perceptions of the student teaching practicum, and the impact of the practicum on their beliefs about teaching in physical education and on their perceptions of the practicum. Constructivism, particularly social constructivism, provided the theoretical framework. The participants were 7 elementary physical education teachers serving as CTs. The primary data sources were standardized, open-ended interviews with the CTs and journals kept by the CTs throughout the practicum. The results showed that these CTs saw the practicum as a positive experience that caused them to increase reflection on and revitalize their teaching. Few changes were noted from pre- to postpracticum in the CTs’ beliefs about teaching physical education or their perceptions of the practicum. CTs with positive practicum perspectives have in common certain contextual factors and social interactions that differ from CTs with negative perspectives; these are discussed.

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Effects of Contact Time and Location of Practicum Experiences on Attitudes of Physical Education Majors

Samuel R. Hodge and Paul Jansma

Attitude change of physical education majors was studied in relation to number of weeks in an introductory adapted physical education (APE) course and type of practicum location (on- or off-campus). Data were collected using the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (PEATID-III) (Rizzo, 1993b) and a practicum information questionnaire (PIQ). Participants completing the PEATID-III during Weeks 1, 10, and 15 of their course were 292 males and 182 females in 22 institutions of higher education (IHEs) representing 17 states. Participants completing the PIQ were 17 faculty members. A nonequivalent comparison group, pretest-posttest experimental design was used with factorial ANOVA, post-hoc measures, ANCOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings indicated that off- and on-campus practicum both promoted positive attitude change between Weeks 1 and 10 and Weeks 1 and 15. On-campus practicum experiences improved attitudes significantly more than off-campus ones.

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Comparison of Practicum Types in Changing Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes and Perceived Competence

Samuel R. Hodge, Ronald Davis, Rebecca Woodard, and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to compare the effects of two practicum types (off campus and on campus) on physical education teacher education (PETE) students’ attitudes and perceived competence toward teaching school-aged students with physical disabilities or moderate-severe mental retardation. PETE students, enrolled in a 15-week introductory adapted physical education (APE) course and involved in eight sessions of either off-campus (n = 22) or on-campus (n = 15) practicum experiences, completed Rizzo’s (1993a) Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (PEATID-III) two times. Analysis of pretest data revealed that groups were equated on gender, experience, attitude, and perceived competence. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA revealed no significant difference between practicum types on posttest attitude and perceived competence measures. Attitude scores did not differ significantly from pretest to posttest. Perceived competence improved significantly from pretest to posttest under both practicum types. Implications for professional preparation are discussed.