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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Justin Landers, and Karen Elizabeth Wallman

This study examined the effects of precooling via ice ingestion on female cycling performance in hot, humid conditions. Ten female endurance athletes, mean age (28 ± 6 y), height (167.6 ± 6.5 cm) and body-mass (68.0 ± 11.5 kg) participated in the study. Participants completed an 800 kJ cycle time-trial in hot, humid conditions (34.9 ± 0.3 °C, 49.8 ± 3.5% RH). This was preceded by the consumption of 7 g∙kg-1 of crushed ice (ICE) or water (CON). There was no difference in performance time (CON 3851 ± 449 s; ICE 3767 ± 465 s), oxygen consumption (CON 41.6 ± 7.0 ml∙kg∙min-1; ICE 42.4 ± 6.0 ml∙kg∙min-1) or respiratory exchange ratio (CON 0.88 ± 0.05; ICE 0.90 ± 0.06) between conditions (p > .05, d < 0.5). Core and skin temperature following the precooling period were lower in ICE (Tc 36.4 ± 0.4 °C; Tsk 31.6 ± 1.2 °C) compared with CON (Tc 37.1 ± 0.4 °C; Tsk 32.4 ± 0.7 °C) and remained lower until the 100 kJ mark of the cycle time-trial (p < .05, d > 1.0). Sweat onset occurred earlier in CON (228 ± 113 s) compared with ICE (411 ± 156 s) (p < .05, d = 1.63). Mean thermal sensation (CON 1.8 ± 2.0; ICE 1.2 ± 2.5, p < .05, d = 2.51), perceived exertion (CON 15.3 ± 2.9; ICE 14.9 ± 3.0, p < .05, d = 0.38) and perceived thirst (CON 5.6 ± 2.2; ICE 4.6 ± 2.4, p < .05, d = 0.98) were lower in ICE compared with CON. Crushed ice ingestion did not improve cycling performance in females, although perceptual responses were reduced.

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen E. Wallman, and Jacinta Saldaris

This study examined the physiological effects of crushed ice ingestion before steady state exercise in the heat. Ten healthy males with age (23 ± 3 y), height (176.9 ± 8.7 cm), body-mass (73.5 ± 8.0 kg), VO2peak (48.5 ± 3.6 mL∙kg∙min-1) participated in the study. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 55% of their VO2peak preceded by 30 min of precooling whereby 7 g∙kg-1 of thermoneutral water (CON) or crushed ice (ICE) was ingested. The reduction in Tc at the conclusion of precooling was greater in ICE (-0.9 ± 0.3 °C) compared with CON (-0.2 ± 0.2 °C) (p ≤ .05). Heat storage capacity was greater in ICE compared with CON after precooling (ICE -29.3 ± 4.8 W∙m-2; CON -11.1 ± 7.3 W∙m-2, p < .05). Total heat storage was greater in ICE compared with CON at the end of the steady state cycle (ICE 62.0 ± 12.5 W∙m-2; CON 49.9 ± 13.4 W∙m-2, p < .05). Gross efficiency was higher in ICE compared with CON throughout the steady state cycle (ICE 21.4 ± 1.8%; CON 20.4 ± 1.9%, p < .05). Ice ingestion resulted in a lower thermal sensation at the end of precooling and a lower sweat rate during the initial stages of cycling (p < .05). Sweat loss, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion and thirst were similar between conditions (p > .05). Precooling with crushed ice led to improved gross efficiency while cycling due to an increased heat storage capacity, which was the result of a lower core temperature.

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Connor A. Burton and Christine A. Lauber

OR endurance cyclists • Intervention: cold water immersion, OR ice immersion, OR cold bath, OR ice bath, AND pre-cooling • Comparison: control • Outcomes: performance, AND core temperature, AND heart rate, AND rate of perceived exertion, AND blood lactate concentration Figure 1 —Summary of search

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Timothy M. Wohlfert and Kevin C. Miller

. https://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=5653 2. Skein M , Duffield R , Cannon J , Marino FE . Self-paced intermittent-sprint performance and pacing strategies following respective pre-cooling and heating . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2012 ; 112 : 253 – 266 . PubMed ID: 21537928 doi:10.1007/s00421

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman, and Georgina Kent

– 786 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.750006 10.1080/02640414.2012.750006 23215944 17. Castle P , Mackenzie RW , Maxwell N , Webborn AD , Watt PW . Heat acclimation improves intermittent sprinting in the heat but additional pre-cooling offers no further ergogenic effect . J Sports Sci

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Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, Wayne McNulty, David Campbell, and Eamonn Delahunt

, George EB . Fractals and the analysis of growth paths . Bull Math Biol . 1985 ; 47 ( 2 ): 273 – 286 . PubMed ID: 4027437 doi:10.1007/BF02460036 4027437 10.1016/S0092-8240(85)90053-9 29. Cotter JD , Sleivert GG , Roberts WS , Febbraio MA . Effect of pre-cooling, with and without thigh

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Cody R. Smith, Cory L. Butts, J.D. Adams, Matthew A. Tucker, Nicole E. Moyen, Matthew S. Ganio, and Brendon P. McDermott

105484 7. Kay D , Taaffe DR , Marino FE . Whole-body pre-cooling and heat storage during self-paced cycling performance in warm humid conditions . J Sports Sci . 1999 ; 17 ( 12 ): 937 – 944 . PubMed doi:10.1080/026404199365326 10.1080/026404199365326 10622353 8. Arngrïmsson SA , Petitt DS

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Maria Misailidi, Konstantinos Mantzios, Christos Papakonstantinou, Leonidas G. Ioannou, and Andreas D. Flouris

systematic review and practical applications . Sports Med . 2013 ; 43 ( 3 ): 207 – 225 . PubMed ID: 23329610 doi:10.1007/s40279-012-0014-9 10.1007/s40279-012-0014-9 23329610 3. Duffield R , Bird SP , Ballard RJ . Field-based pre-cooling for on-court tennis conditioning training in the heat . J

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard, and Louise M. Burke

intake during recovery should be considered in terms of overall nutrition goals. Nutritional Pre- and Per-Cooling Strategies During Exercise Preparing athletes to safely exercise in uncompensable heat can be addressed by cooling both before (i.e., pre-cooling) and during (i.e., per-cooling) the activity

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Steve H. Faulkner, Iris Broekhuijzen, Margherita Raccuglia, Maarten Hupperets, Simon G. Hodder, and George Havenith

. 2011 ; 43 ( 1 ): 123 – 133 . PubMed ID: 20508537 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e93210 20508537 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e93210 12. Wegmann M , Faude O , Poppendieck W , Hecksteden A , Fröhlich M , Meyer T . Pre-cooling and sports performance: a meta-analytical review . Sport Med . 2012