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Peter Gröpel and Jürgen Beckmann

Researchers suggests that a pre-performance routine (PPR) can improve performance in competitions. The effectiveness of left-hand contractions, a PPR to trigger facilitative cortical processes for skilled motor performance, was tested in two studies. In Study 1, gymnasts competing at the German university championships in artistic gymnastics performed their routines with or without the PPR. In Study 2, gymnasts performed the balance beam exercise either using the PPR or the control task (right-hand contractions) under simulated competition pressure. The qualification performance (Study 1) and the pressure-free performance (Study 2) were controlled. In both studies, participants in the PPR group performed better than control participants. The results indicate that left-hand contractions may be a useful PPR in the field.

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Christopher Mesagno, Daryl Marchant, and Tony Morris

“Choking under pressure” is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a preperformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three “choking-susceptible”, experienced participants were purposively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = “low-pressure”; B phases = “high-pressure”), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced “choking” in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention.

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Peter Gröpel, Christopher Mesagno, and Jürgen Beckmann

Psychology, 61, 176 – 190 . doi:10.1016/j.joep.2017.04.005 10.1016/j.joep.2017.04.005 Cotterill , S.T. ( 2010 ). Pre-performance routines in sport: Current understanding and future directions . International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 3, 132 – 153 . doi:10.1080/1750984X.2010

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Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum

.1695140 Borg , G. ( 1998 ). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales . In G. Borg (Ed.), The Borg CR10 RPE scale (pp.  39 – 43 ). Human Kinetics . Clowes , H. , & Knowles , Z. ( 2013 ). Exploring the effectiveness of pre-performance routines in elite artistic gymnasts: A mixed method

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Thomas Gretton, Lindsey Blom, Dorice Hankemeier, and Lawrence Judge

of pre-performance routines of divers and performance outcomes . The Sport Journal, 13 ( 4 ), 1 – 7 . Braun , V. , & Clarke , V. ( 2006 ). Using thematic analysis in psychology . Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 ( 2 ), 77 – 101 . doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa 10.1191/1478088706qp063

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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse, and Gareth Morgan

identity away from the sport context, which facilitates their ability to work through challenging phases such as injury, deselection, or early retirement more effectively. Synonyms:  • N/A Associated behaviors/outcomes:  • N/A (Pre)performance routines Antecedents:  • N/A Durand-Bush and Salmela ( 2002

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Sara Biondi, Cristiana Conti, Emmanouil Georgiadis, and Maurizio Bertollo

, 2015 ) were provided to Luca to improve his coping skills against anxiety and negative emotions, and also support relevant pre-performance routines. Moreover, performance-enhancing work was oriented towards his self-talk and his “inner voices” that provided harsh and uninterrupted criticism ( McKay

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Umut Doğan

desired format and language simplified. Precompetition and competition planning Psychological strategy Not included Indirectly covered as “pre-performance routines” and “what-if scenario analysis” per sport experts’ feedback. Simulation training Psychological strategy Simulation training Clear enough for

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Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Albert J. Petitpas

skilled athletes? Can they help beginners? In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology ( 3rd ed. , pp.  445 – 468 ). New York, NY : Wiley . Lidor , R. ( 2010 ). Pre-performance routines . In S.J. Hanrahan & M.B. Andersen (Eds.), Routledge handbook of applied

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Kristoffer Henriksen, Louise Kamuk Storm, Natalia Stambulova, Nicklas Pyrdol, and Carsten Hvid Larsen

Targeted mental skills Goal setting, self-talk, visualization, stress management, pre-performance routines, and relaxation. Beyond mental skills A whole person approach with focus on family, school, peers, self-management and life skills. Education of coaches and parents Focus is limited to sport