commencement compared with the 12 mo prior) and the health care utilization for a 6-month period prior to participation in the program (block 1) and a 6-month period beginning 6 months after commencing the program (block 3; Table 1 ). This was a pre–post study design for a single cohort. The economic
Cost-Effectiveness of the ENJOY Seniors Exercise Park for Older People: A Pre–Post Intervention Study
Natasha K. Brusco, Keith D. Hill, Terry Haines, Jeremy Dunn, Maya G. Panisset, Briony Dow, Frances Batchelor, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Gustavo Duque, and Pazit Levinger
The Effect of Pre–Post Differences in Walking, Health, and Weight on Retirees’ Long-Term Quality of Life
This research examined the effect of pre–post differences in walking duration, health, and weight on retirees’ long-term quality of life (QoL). It used data from a 2018 randomized mail survey of 483 suburban New Jersey retirees. Ordinary least squares and three-stage least squares models were used. The analysis showed that changes in walking duration during the first 2 years of retirement are directly associated with health change, health change has an effect on long-term QoL, and weight variation of 10 lb or more has an effect on health change and long-term QoL. Although QoL peaks for the sample of retirees at around age 75, people whose average walking duration increased, health improved, and weight did not increase substantially after retirement continued to experience high QoL for a longer time. The results show that people can achieve high long-term QoL by choosing an active lifestyle when transitioning to retirement.
Pre-post Evaluation of the “Supporting Student-Athlete Mental Wellness” Module for College Coaches
Emily Kroshus, Jessica Wagner, David L. Wyrick, and Brian Hainline
This study sought to determine whether completion of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s “Supporting Student-Athlete Mental Wellness” online module for coaches increased mental health literacy, reduced stigma, and increased intentions to: 1) communicate proactively with team members about the importance of mental health care seeking, and 2) respond appropriately to support an athlete believed to be struggling with a mental health issue. College head coaches completed pre-test surveys (n = 969) and immediate post-test surveys (n = 347, completion rate = 36%). Module completion was associated with increased mental health literacy, decreased stigma about help seeking and increased intentions to engage in culture setting communication. These findings suggest that the online module is a good start for coach education about mental health; however, additional modifications may be warranted to the extent coach referral to sports medicine staff or provision of emotional support to student-athletes struggling with mental health concerns are considered desired behaviors.
Effects of a Conventional Treatment Plus Scapular Exercises Program in Patients With Chronic Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy: A Pre−Post Single-Group Study
Héctor Gutiérrez-Espinoza, Evelin Estrella-Flores, Iván Cuyul-Vásquez, Rene Jorquera-Aguilera, José Francisco López-Gil, and Felipe Araya-Quintanilla
Background: Weakness of the shoulder girdle muscles has been reported in patients with chronic lateral elbow tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the short- and long-term effects of a conventional treatment plus scapular exercises program in patients with chronic lateral elbow tendinopathy. Methods: A single-group prestudy and poststudy were conducted. The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire score. Secondary outcomes were grip strength; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score; Visual Analogue Scale score at rest and at grip, and presence of scapular dyskinesis. Results: A total of 65 patients (72.3% females), with a mean age of 41.8 years, were analyzed. At the end of 6 weeks, the results showed clinically and statistically significant differences (P < .05). At 1-year follow-up, the differences were: Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation −31 points (P < .001); grip strength +33.6% (P < .001); Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand −34.2 points (P < .001); Visual Analogue Scale at rest −2.5 cm (P < .001); and Visual Analogue Scale at grip −2.3 cm (P < .001). Conclusion: At the end of 6 weeks and at 1-year follow-up, conventional treatment plus scapular exercises program showed statistically and clinically significant differences in all functional outcomes assessed in patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy.
The Impacts of Building a Greenway on Proximate Residents’ Physical Activity
Stephanie T. West and Kindal A. Shores
A significant association has been identified between physical activity and proximity to greenways. However, residents more likely to be active may have selected to live near existing greenways. The purpose of this study was to determine whether development of a new greenway has the potential to increase activity levels of existing, proximate residents.
In 2008, survey data were collected before and after 5 miles of greenway were added to an existing greenway.
When comparing residents living nearest (≤ .50 miles) the new greenway section with those living further (.51−1.0 miles), days spent walking and participating in moderate physical activity increased. Despite mean increases, no significant interactions were detected.
Although evidence is inconclusive, apparent increases in walking and moderate activity suggest development of a greenway proximate to residents’ homes is likely to have a positive effect on participation levels. Additional research is needed to address article limitations.
Mobile Health Interventions for Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Systematic Literature Review
Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek, and David Smahel
mHealth applications for PA, SB, and sleep among adults aged 50 years and older. Both experimental (RCT) and quasi-experimental studies and studies with single-group, pre/post designs are included in an effort to provide a broad overview of the different ways in which mobile technologies have been applied
Bilateral Improvements Following Unilateral Home-Based Training in Plantar Flexors: A Potential for Cross-Education in Rehabilitation
Sumona Mandal, Liang Zhi Wong, Niall D. Simmons, Andreas Mirallais, Flaminia Ronca, and Bhavesh Kumar
) in PO and FT. Significant interactions were assessed using repeated-measures and 1-way analyses of variance. Post hoc testing was performed with Bonferroni and Tukey tests, as used in plantar flexor CE studies. 16 , 18 Independent t tests were used to analyze pre–post percentage change in both
Implementation and Evaluation of a Performance-Profile Intervention With College Dancers
Elmer A. Castillo and Graig M. Chow
examine the utility and efficacy of the revised-PP technique ( Gucciardi & Gordon, 2009b ) with college dancers on two specific outcomes—self-awareness and behavioral change. We hypothesized that the pre–post effects of a single PP intervention would vary by intervention condition, with stronger gains in
Impact of Engaging the Nonthrowing Arm on Maximal Ball Velocity From an Overhand Throw With Both the Dominant and Nondominant Arms: A Pilot Study
Alanna Weisberg, Hyun Suk Lee, Tak Fung, and Larry Katz
in one data point per condition per trial. Four sets of mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA; dominant and nondominant) were conducted for the group (pulling and nonpulling) by time (pre–post) for the following dependent variables: • Maximal ball velocity (km/hr) • Maximal throwing arm velocity (km
Lessons From the Experts: The Effect of a Cognitive Processing Intervention During Deliberate Practice of a Complex Task
Edward K. Coughlan, A. Mark Williams, and Paul R. Ford
their skill measured and examined across pre-, post-, and retention tests. The deliberate practice theory was first introduced in a landmark study conducted by Ericsson et al. ( 1993 ). These authors examined retrospectively the activities that musicians attending the West Berlin Music Academy had