may inform interventions to minimize the decline. 5 – 10 Understanding these associations in preadolescents at risk for poor health outcomes, such as preadolescents with elevated body mass index (BMI), is especially important given the harmful health impact of physical inactivity and prolonged
Krista Schroeder, Martha Y. Kubik, Jiwoo Lee, John R. Sirard, and Jayne A. Fulkerson
Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu, and Yu-Kai Chang
children specifically. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise interventions affect cognitive function in preadolescents with obesity. Specifically, a multicomponent exercise intervention that involved multifaceted physical fitness characteristics and metacognition was explored. Our
Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita, and Tadao Isaka
and lower limb muscles and sprint performance in male preadolescent sprinters aged 10–12 years. Methods Participants Fifteen sprint-trained preadolescent boys (age 11.6 ± 0.4 y; body height 146.0 ± 7.8 cm; body mass 35.5 ± 5.8 kg) participated in this study. Their maturity status was evaluated using
Darla M. Castelli, Charles H. Hillman, Sarah M. Buck, and Heather E. Erwin
The relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement has received much attention owing to the increasing prevalence of children who are overweight and unfit, as well as the inescapable pressure on schools to produce students who meet academic standards. This study examined 259 public school students in third and fifth grades and found that field tests of physical fitness were positively related to academic achievement. Specifically, aerobic capacity was positively associated with achievement, whereas BMI was inversely related. Associations were demonstrated in total academic achievement, mathematics achievement, and reading achievement, thus suggesting that aspects of physical fitness may be globally related to academic performance in preadolescents. The findings are discussed with regards to maximizing school performance and the implications for educational policies.
Emma Weston, Matthew Nagy, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block, and Rebecca E. Hasson
intermittent physical activity breaks on BP in preadolescent children are lacking and warrant further investigation. Data from the pediatric exercise literature also suggest improvements in BP responses related to intermittent activity may be intensity dependent. Using an observational study design, Tsioufis
Massimo Venturelli, David Bishop, and Lorenzo Pettene
Young soccer players are usually trained with adult-training methods, even though the physiological adaptations are likely to be very different compared with adults. In contrast, some have suggested training preadolescents only with coordination training. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether coordination or repeated-sprint training better improved speed over 20 m, with and without the ball. Sixteen soccer players (mean age 11 ± 0.5 y) were randomly assigned to a sprint-training group (STG = 7) or a coordination-training group (CTG = 9). The STG trained twice a week for 12 wk and performed 20 repetitions of 20- and 10-m sprints; the CTG performed coordination training (eg, speed ladder running) for the same training duration. Maximal jump height, anthropometric measures, and 20-m sprint time, with and without ball, were evaluated before and after the training period. Statistical significance was determined using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and Pearson test for correlation. Both groups improved speed without the ball: STG = 3.75 ± 0.10 s to 3.66 ± 0.09 s (P < .05); CTG = 3.64 ± 0.13 s to 3.56 ± 0.13 s (P < .05), with no difference between groups. Sprint time with the ball pre- and posttraining was 4.06 ± 0.11 s and 4.05 ± 0.19 s (P > .05) for STG and 4.04 ± 0.12 s and 3.82 ± 0.15 s (P < .05) for CTG, with a significant difference between groups posttraining (P < .05). There were significant correlations between sprint time without ball, CMJ, and SJ. These data suggest that coordination training increases the speed with the ball more than typical repeated-sprint training. It can be hypothesized that running speed with ball improved more in CTG because this particular action requires improvements in coordination.
Margina Ruiter, Charly Eielts, Sofie Loyens, and Fred Paas
benefits associated with reduced sitting time, 12 – 18 research into the possible cognitive effects associated with active workstations is mixed and scarce in adults and even more so in preadolescent children. Different physical benefits have been observed for various fitness levels 19 and exercise
Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Matthew R. Nagy, Molly P. O’Sullivan, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi, and Rebecca E. Hasson
20 minutes of moderate-intensity treadmill walking in preadolescent children suggesting that cognitive improvements associated with exercise are not uniform. Both studies varied the duration of exercise while keeping the intensity of exercise constant. The effect of exercise intensity on math
Pamela L.Y.H. Ching and William H. Dietz Jr.
Nonobese, preadolescent girls self-reported, and their parents provided proxy reports of daughters’ daily activities using questionnaires. Responses were evaluated for test-retest reliability, and for validity using one-week diaries. Results indicated all three respondents provided reproducible estimates of time daughters spent watching TV; daughters and mothers, of time daughters spent sleeping; and parents, of time daughters spent in vigorous activities. However, only daughters >10 years of age could provide valid reports for time spent in moderate activities and in sedentary and light activities on school days. Study results suggest that daughters and parents have difficulty providing reliable and valid estimates of activity level.
Norma Olvera, Kendall E. McCarley, Patrick Leung, Jessica McLeod, and Augusto X. Rodriguez
The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity preferences (PAP) in preadolescent children. 191 Latino and White children (M = 11.9, SD = ±0.7) participated. Demographic, anthropometric, and PAP measures were employed. Both Latino and White children reported water play, basketball, and bicycling as their most preferred activities while indoor chores were least preferred. Compared with Latino, White children reported a higher preference for baseball/softball. Exploratory factor analysis of PAP measure indicated a three-factor solution: free play, sports, and exercise. Multiple linear regression models revealed that PAP varied as a function of ethnicity, gender, age, and body mass index.