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Gustavo Ramos Dalla Bernardina, Tony Monnet, Heber Teixeira Pinto, Ricardo Machado Leite de Barros, Pietro Cerveri and Amanda Piaia Silvatti

acquisitions based on the same calibration procedure. As such, in this study we compared a GoPro camera system (ASC) with a Vicon camera system (MOCAP) in terms of 3D precision, accuracy, and kinematics of gait and jump in a controlled laboratory setup. Methods As camera systems we used 4 GoPro Hero3+ Black

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

Design To assess the novice and experienced technicians’ reliability, precision, and sensitivity to change, individuals were assigned to a group (experienced or novice). Individuals’ total body BC and BMD were scanned twice on the same day, minutes apart with repositioning between each scan. Scanning

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Benjamin M. Jackson, Ted Polglaze, Brian Dawson, Trish King and Peter Peeling

. Subsequently, the percentage of total distance covered in each velocity band was calculated for each period. For acceleration and deceleration, the number of efforts (>1.46 and <−1.46 m·s −2 ) was recorded. As well as these movement variables, the value for horizontal dilution of precision (HDoP) was extracted

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John H. Challis

Repeat measurements were made by 2 operators on a group of 50 physically active subjects (age, 20.7 years ± 1.8; males: height 1.780 m ± 0.043. mass, 78.09 kg ± 9.30; females: height. 1.680 m ± 0.064. mass. 66.67 kg ± 6.67) to determine the precision with which the subjects' limb segment inertial parameters could be estimated. Segmental inertial parameters were determined using 3 techniques. 2 of which involved modeling segments as geometric solids, and a 3rd which used the equations of Zatsiorsky et al. (1990). Precisions were high for all 3 techniques, with little difference between inter- and intra-operator precisions. The lowest precisions were obtained for the hands and feet. For these segments the use of repeat measures to improve precision is recommended. These results imply that with similarly trained measurers, comparison of inertial parameters determined using the same protocol but obtained by different operators is appropriate, and that it is viable to have 2 measurers taking measurements on the same subject to accelerate data collection.

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Talyene G.C. Corrêa, Stephanie V.S. Donato, Kauê C.A. Lima, Ronaldo V. Pereira, Mehmet Uygur and Paulo Barbosa de Freitas

these results, it is expected that RFD-SF is reduced by the natural aging process. Nevertheless, it is still not known if this difference would occur in a task with greater ecological validity, as in the task of producing precision grip force (GF) performed over a free-moving object. Several studies

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Alessia Longo and Ruud Meulenbroek

flexibility. This study was set up to examine how movement variability changes in healthy participants during sustained bimanual reaching under controlled precision conditions, in particular with regard to movement time (MT), end-point variability, approximate entropy (ApEn), and standard deviation (SD) of

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Joseph Myers, John Jolly, Takashi Nagai and Scott Lephart

Context:

In vivo scapular kinematics during humeral movements are commonly assessed with electromagnetic tracking devices despite few published data related to reliability and precision of these measurements.

Objective:

To determine the intrasession reliability and precision of assessing scapular kinematics using an electromagnetic tracking device.

Design:

Scapular position and orientation were measured with an electromagnetic tracking device during humeral elevation/depression in several planes. Intrasession reliability and precision were established by comparing 2 trials performed in succession.

Setting:

A human-movement research laboratory.

Participants:

15 healthy individuals.

Main Outcome Measures:

Intrasession intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement of all scapular variables were established.

Results:

The mean intrasession reliability for all variables was ICC = .97 ± .03. The mean intrasession precision was .99° ± .36°.

Conclusions:

In vivo scapular kinematics can be measured with high reliability and precision during intrasession research designs.

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Craig R. Denegar and Donald W. Ball

The reliability and precision of measurement in sports medicine are of concern in both research and clinical practice. The validity of conclusions drawn from a research project and the rationale for decisions made about the care of an injured athlete are directly related to the precision of measurement. Through analysis of variance, estimates of reliability and precision of measurement can be quantified. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the concepts of intraclass correlation as an estimate of reliability and standard error of measurement as an estimate of precision. The need for a standardized set of formulas for intraclass correlation is demonstrated, and it is urged that the standard error of measurement be included when estimates of reliability are reported. In addition, three examples are provided to illustrate important concepts and familiarize the reader with the process of calculating these estimates of reliability and precision of measurement.

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Jeffrey M. Haddad, Laura J. Claxton, Dawn K. Melzer, Joseph Hamill and Richard E. A. van Emmerik

Posture becomes integrated with other goal-directed behaviors early in infancy and continues to develop into the second decade of life. However, the developmental time course over which posture is stabilized relative to the base of support during a dynamic manual precision task has not been examined. Postural-manual integration was assessed in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults using a postural-manual task in which task precision (target fitting size) and postural difficulty (reaching distance to a target) were manipulated. The main dependent variable was postural time-to-contact (TtC). Results indicated systematic age effects in which TtC was shortest in the 7-year-olds, increased in the 10-year-olds, and was longest in the adults. Across all age levels, TtC was longer when performing a precision ft compared with a nonprecision ft and when fitting at a near target compared with fitting at a far target. Finally, TtC increased over the course of the manual fitting task, suggesting that posture became increasingly stable as the hand approached the opening. The ability to modulate postural TtC during the course of the fitting trial was most pronounced in adults as compared with both groups of children. These results suggest that even by 10-years of age, children are not yet able to fully integrate postural movements with goal directed manual tasks at adult-like levels.

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Niilo Konttinen, Kaisu Mononen, Jukka Viitasalo and Toni Mets

This study examined the effectiveness of augmented auditory feedback on the performance and learning of a precision shooting task. Participants included Finnish conscripts (N = 30) who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: auditory feedback group (AFb), knowledge-of-results group (KR), and nontraining control group (Control). Data collection consisted of a pretest, a 4-week acquisition phase, a posttest, and two tests of retention. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of performance outcome, i.e., shooting result. Concurrent auditory feedback related to rife stability did not facilitate shooting performance in a practice situation. In the posttest and retention tests, the participants in the AFb group displayed more accurate shooting performance than those in the KR and Control groups. Findings suggest that a non-elite shooter’s performance can be improved with a 4-week auditory feedback treatment. Given that the learning advantage persisted for delayed retention tests, the observed improvement in skill acquisition was due to relatively permanent variables rather than to temporary effects.