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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur

appropriate to optimize competitive performance. 2 On competition day, most teams perform a physical session for 2 to 3 hours before the first match of the day. 3 This preconditioning strategy is often termed as “blowout” and is composed of small-sided games and repeated-sprint drills. 1 These sessions

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Kyle M.A. Thompson, Alanna K. Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L. Spriet and Jamie F. Burr

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was originally developed to reduce cell necrosis during prolonged periods of ischemia. 1 In addition to the cytoprotective effects of IPC, the stimuli from cyclical periods of localized ischemia, which is similar to the periods of vascular occlusion caused by maximal

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Christian P. Cheung, Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is an experimental technique that involves intermittent periods of complete blood flow occlusion and reperfusion of a limb. 1 Whether applied locally or remotely, IPC has been shown to have cardioprotective effects against ischemic–reperfusion injury. 1 , 2 Despite

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

, 13 One method to compensate for the altering effect of hypoxia on competition performance is the application of hyperoxic gases (inspiratory fraction of oxygen [FiO 2 ] > 0.2095) prior to the start of the race (hyperoxic preconditioning). Remarkably, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has not

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) refers to the phenomenon whereby 3 or 4 brief periods of ischemia, followed by tissue reperfusion, confer subsequent tissue protection against ischemic insult. 1 IPC can be applied remotely by placing a blood-pressure cuff around a limb and inflating to suprasystolic

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Philippe Richard and François Billaut

accentuated local hypoxic stress that may hasten peripheral fatigue development. 1 The precise effects of variations in muscular oxygenation on speed skating performance are, however, not clearly understood. Local ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) expose tissue to

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer, Lukas Höllrigl, Christian Raschner and Wolfgang Schobersberger

hypoxia on performance is the application of supplemental oxygen (inspiratory fraction of oxygen [FiO 2 ] > 0.2095) prior to exercise (hyperoxic preconditioning). 11 Acute hypoxia per se leads to decreased SaO 2 , which is further pronounced during intense exercise (eg, alpine ski racing). 3 , 11

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

participants underwent a preconditioning RT program (Weeks 3–10). In the second phase of the experiment, participants then performed 12 weeks of RT (Weeks 13–24) according to their assigned supplementation group. At the beginning and end of each phase (Weeks 1–2, 11–12, and 25–26), 2 weeks were taken to carry

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Tiago Turnes, Rogério S.O. Cruz, Fabrizio Caputo and Rafael A. De Aguiar

time trial is among the most reliable tests of athletic performance, 2 – 4 being extensively used in scientific research investigating the influence of preconditioning strategies on rowing. Such treatments are useful because the differences between the gold and silver medalists in the final at the

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Sabri Gueid, Sami Hmaied, Marouen Souaifi and Riadh Khalifa

preconditioning strategies like adding external load to sport-specific movement patterns using portable and safer tools during the warm-up. A common PAP conditioning activity used by athletes is wearing loaded vests while undertaking sport-specific movement patterns exercises. Positive long-term effects of