Components of the transtheoretical model of change were examined in a prospective study of the adoption of vigorous exercise in adults. Respondents to a random mail survey were resurveyed 2 years later. Those who reported no vigorous exercise at baseline were classified as either contemplators (n = 213) or precontemplators (n = 188). Contemplators had higher baseline self-efficacy scores than precontemplators (p < .001). In multivariate analyses, baseline stage of change was a significant predictor (p < .0005) of later adoption of vigorous exercise, even after controlling for differences in age, gender, and self-efficacy. During the first 6 months postbaseline, contemplators were nearly twice as likely as precontemplators to progress to the stage of action (46% vs. 24%), and four times more likely to progress to the stage of maintenance (25% vs. 6%). Use of the transtheoretical model in the study of exercise was supported in this prospective examination of exercise in a community sample.
Colin A. Armstrong, James F. Sallis, Melbourne F. Hovell and C. Richard Hofstetter
Kristin M. Mills, Anita L. Stewart, Barbara Y. McLellan, Carol J. Verboncoeur, Abby C. King and Byron W. Brown
Health-promotion programs’ success depends on their ability to enroll representative samples of the target population, particularly those who are hard to reach and those who can benefit the most from such programs. This article evaluates enrollment bias in the recruitment process, examines the usefulness of a 2-phased recruitment strategy in enrolling representative proportions of eligible individuals in a physical-activity-promotion program for older adults, and explores predictors of enrollment. Of 1,381 randomly selected Medicare HMO members. 519 were eligible. Of these, 54% attended an informational meeting and 33% enrolled in the program. Relative to the target population, a representative proportion of women was enrolled, but those who enrolled were slightly younger. Of those who were eligible, a representative proportion of sedentary participants was recruited, those who were overweight were overrep-resented, and the oldest old, less educated, ethnic minorities, and precontem-plators of physical activity were underrepresented. Modifiable predictors of enrollment included interest in health, previous health-class attendance, and having had a physician recommend exercise.
Claudia Meyer, Sophie Hill, Keith D. Hill and Briony Dow
required extensive discussion of the pros and cons of adopting a strategy and provision of advice and resources to begin the process of understanding benefits of change ( Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983 ). Precontemplators respond best to gentle, yet persistent support from trusted health professionals and
Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran and Joanne Butt
, and maintain CB restructuring or self-regulation strategies, while Massey, Gnacinski, and Meyer ( 2015 ) identified the largest portion (37%) of sampled NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) athletes as “precontemplators” regarding engagement in a PST program. Taken together, these