or whether other factors explain this effect. Furthermore, research on ageism and Type 2 diabetes focuses on postdiagnosis disease management rather than on prediabetes care to prevent or delay the development of Type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic lifestyle management is the preferred treatment approach
Arun Eswaran and Brad A. Meisner
Namkee G. Choi, Diana M. DiNitto, John E. Sullivan, and Bryan Y. Choi
Disease Control and Prevention, 2017 ). Of the estimated 1.5 million adults with a new diagnosis of diabetes in 2015, nearly 0.4 million were 65+ years old. In addition, an estimated 23.1 million adults aged 65+ years had prediabetes in 2015 based on their fasting glucose or A1C level ( Centers for
Corliss Bean, Tineke Dineen, and Mary Jung
In 2017, 425 million adults worldwide were living with diabetes and 325 million people were at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D; International Diabetes Federation, 2018 ). In Canada, it is estimated that 5.7 million Canadians have prediabetes, a condition characterized by impaired glucose
Jennifer L Kuk, Shahnaz Davachi, Andrea M. Kriska, Michael C. Riddell, and Edward W. Gregg
This article briefly summarizes the “Pre-Diabetes Detection and Intervention Symposium” that described ongoing and past pre-diabetes interventions, and outlined some considerations when deciding to target specific populations with pre-diabetes. The success of type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention clinical trials provides clear evidence that healthy lifestyle change can prevent the development of T2D in a cost effective manner in high risk individuals. However, who to target and what cut-points should be used to identify individuals who would qualify for these T2D prevention programs are not simple questions. More stringent cut-offs are more efficient in preventing T2D, but less equitable. Interventions will likely need to be adapted and made more economical for local communities and health care centers if they are to be adopted universally. Further, they may need to be adapted to meet the specific needs of certain high-risk populations such as ethnic minorities. The Chronic Disease Management & Prevention Program for Diverse Populations in Alberta and the Pre-diabetes Detection and Physical Activity Intervention Delivery project in Toronto represent 2 examples of specialized interventions that are targeted at certain high risk populations. To reverse the current T2D trends will require continued efforts to develop and refine T2D prevention interventions.
Radhika Aditya Jadhav, Animesh Hazari, Ashma Monterio, Sampath Kumar, and Arun G. Maiya
Prediabetes is a strong risk factor for the development of Type2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Modification in lifestyle plays an important role to avoid the prognosis of T2DM and its complications in future. The aim of our study was to focus on the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) intervention program on different outcome measures in individuals with prediabetes. The effort of the present review was to contribute to the existing literature by strengthening the evidence pointing toward the positive impact of physical activity in individuals with prediabetes.
Studies have been identified through database like PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials have been included. Nineteen articles have been selected for the qualitative analysis and 08 for meta-analysis.
PA intervention showed a favorable effect on improving oral glucose tolerance (Risk ratio [RR] –0.26, 95% CI –0.06 to 0.07) and fasting blood sugar (RR –0.05, 95% CI –0.14 to 0.04). It also showed the favorable effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition.
Present review suggests that the PA promotion and participation can help to slow down the progression of disease in individuals with prediabetes and thus reduces the morbidity and mortality associated with T2DM.
Erica Rosenberger Hale, David C. Goff, Scott Isom, Caroline Blackwell, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, and Jeffery A. Katula
Physical inactivity contributes to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight/obesity. However, little is known about this relationship in prediabetes.
The study purpose is to examine relationships between physical activity (PA) and MetS in prediabetes. The Healthy Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes tested a community translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Three hundred one overweight/obese prediabetics provided walking minutes/week (WM) and total activity minutes/week (AM) via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. MetS was at least 3 of waist (men ≥ 102 cm, women ≥ 88 cm), triglycerides (≥150 mg·dl), blood pressure (≥130·85 mm Hg), glucose (≥100mg·dl), and HDL (men < 40mg·dl, women < 50mg·dl).
The sample was 57.5% female, 26.7% nonwhite/Hispanic, 57.9 ± 9.5 years and had a body mass index (BMI) 32.7 ± 4 kg·m2. Sixty percent had MetS. Eighteen percent with MetS reported at least 150 AM compared with 29.8% of those without MetS. The odds of MetS was lower with greater AM (P trend = .041) and WM (P trend = .024). Odds of MetS with 0 WM were 2.08 (P = .046) and with no AM were 2.78 (P = .009) times those meeting goal. One hour additional WM led to 15 times lower MetS odds.
Meeting PA goals reduced MetS odds in this sample, which supported PA for prediabetes to prevent MetS.
Steven K. Malin, Brooke R. Stephens, Carrie G. Sharoff, Todd A. Hagobian, Stuart R. Chipkin, and Barry Braun
Exercise and metformin may prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes by, in part, raising the capacity for fat oxidation. Whether the addition of metformin has additive effects on fat oxidation during and after exercise is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin on substrate oxidation during and after exercise. Using a double-blind, counter-balanced crossover design, substrate oxidation was assessed by indirect calorimetry in 15 individuals taking metformin (2,000 mg/d) and placebo for 8–10 d. Measurements were made during cycle exercise at 5 submaximal cycle workloads, starting at 30% peak work (Wpeak) and increasing by 10% every 8 min to 70% Wpeak. Substrate oxidation was also measured for 50 min postexercise. Differences between conditions were assessed using analysis of variance with repeated measures, and values are reported as M ± SE. During exercise, fat oxidation (0.19 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.01 g/min, p < .01) and percentage of energy from fat (32% ± 3% vs. 28% ± 3%, p < .01) were higher with metformin than with placebo. Postexercise, metformin slightly lowered fat oxidation (0.12 ± 0.02 to 0.10 ± 0.02 g/min, p < .01) compared with placebo. There was an inverse relationship between postexercise fat oxidation and the rate of fat oxidation during exercise (r = –.68, p < .05). In healthy individuals, metformin has opposing actions on fat oxidation during and after exercise. Whether the same effects are evident in insulin-resistant individuals remains to be determined.
The concept that participation in exercise/physical activity reduces the risk for a host of chronic diseases is undisputed. Along with adaptations to habitual activity, each bout of exercise induces beneficial changes that last for a finite period of time, requiring subsequent exercise bouts to sustain the benefits. In this respect, exercise/physical activity is similar to other “medications” and the idea of “Exercise as Medicine” is becoming embedded in the popular lexicon. Like other medications, exercise has an optimal dose and frequency of application specific to each health outcome, as well as interactions with food and other medications. Using the prevention of type-2 diabetes as an exemplar, the application of exercise/physical activity as a medication for metabolic “rehabilitation” is considered in these terms. Some recommendations that are specific to diabetes prevention emerge, showing the process by which exercise can be prescribed to achieve health goals tailored to individual disease prevention outcomes.
Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee, and Jennifer Morozink Boylan
Diabetes is a significant problem in the United States and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality. Currently, 9.3% have diabetes and 37% have milder forms of hyperglycemia such as prediabetes that typically transition to overt diabetes. 1 The economic costs of diabetes are staggering
Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson
Edited by Kim Gammage
survivors. British Journal of Health Psychology, 23 , 723–740. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12313 Journal website: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/20448287 Author website: https://www.flinders.edu.au/people/janine.chapman Distress, Downplay, or Self-Compassion: Reactions to Prediabetes Diagnosis Diabetes