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Minna Aittasalo, Matti Pasanen, Mikael Fogelholm, and Katriina Ojala


To examine the validity and repeatability of a short leisure time physical activity (LTPA) questionnaire during pregnancy.


Seventy-nine women with uncomplicated pregnancies and weeks’ gestation ≤ 33 participated. After the first questionnaire (LTPAQ1) they entered 7-day LTPA and pedometer counts in a logbook and completed the second LTPA questionnaire (LTPAQ2). Validity was assessed with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients by comparing LTPAQ2 with pedometer counts and logbook. For describing repeatability, change in the mean, geometric mean ratio, typical error, coefficient of variation (CV, %) and Bland-Altman plots were used.


Forty-five (57%) and 47 (59%) women were available for pedometer and logbook comparisons and 49 (62%) for repeatability assessment. LTPAQ2 showed no correlation with pedometer but moderate correlation with the logbook for the frequency of moderate to vigorous-intensity LTPA (rs = 0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.81). In repeatability, the typical error for frequency estimates varied from 1.2 to 3.7 sessions and CV for duration from 119 to 369%. The corresponding values for systematic error were -1.0 to 0.3 sessions and 4 to 36%. The 95% limits of agreement for single variables were large.


The questionnaire was valid for assessing moderate to vigorous-intensity LTPA but its individual repeatability proved weak.

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Maureen I. Ogamba, Kari L. Loverro, Natalie M. Laudicina, Simone V. Gill, and Cara L. Lewis

During pregnancy, the female body experiences structural changes, such as weight gain. As pregnancy advances, most of the additional mass is concentrated anteriorly on the lower trunk. The purpose of this study is to analyze kinematic and kinetic changes when load is added anteriorly to the trunk, simulating a physical change experienced during pregnancy. Twenty healthy females walked on a treadmill while wearing a custom made pseudo-pregnancy sac (1 kg) under 3 load conditions: sac-only condition, 10-lb condition (4.535 kg added anteriorly), and 20-lb condition (9.07 kg added anteriorly), used to simulate pregnancy in the second trimester and at full-term pregnancy, respectively. The increase in anterior mass resulted in kinematic changes at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes. In addition, ankle, knee, and hip joint moments normalized to baseline mass increased with increased load; however, these moments decreased when normalized to total mass. These kinematic and kinetic changes may suggest that women modify gait biomechanics to reduce the effect of added load. Furthermore, the increase in joint moments increases stress on the musculoskeletal system and may contribute to musculoskeletal pain.

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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac, and Semra Topuz

Physical activity is a very important and complex behavior that plays a role in the development of health and prevention of diseases. 1 Physical activity starting before pregnancy and continuing during pregnancy has a positive effect on the additional metabolic stress caused by pregnancy, while it

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Lindsey M. Russo, Megan W. Harvey, Penelope Pekow, and Lisa Chasan-Taber

cesarean delivery are more likely to deliver subsequent pregnancies via cesarean delivery. 4 Rates of cesarean delivery in the United States increased from 20.7% in 1996 to a peak of 32.9% in 2009 but have recently stabilized among non-Hispanic white women at approximately 30.9%. 5 However, among

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Samantha F. Ehrlich, Amanda J. Casteel, Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing, Monique M. Hedderson, Susan D. Brown, Maren Galarce, Dawn P. Coe, David R. Bassett, and Assiamira Ferrara

and Gynecologists, 2015 ). PA during pregnancy is safe ( The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2015 ) and beneficial in terms of improving or maintaining physical fitness ( Kramer & McDonald, 2006 ) and pregnancy and postpartum weight management ( Ruchat et al., 2018

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Taniya S. Nagpal, Catherine Everest, Sara C.S. Souza, Danilo F. da Silva, Shuhiba Mohammad, Jayonta Bhattacharjee, and Kristi B. Adamo

(ON, Canada) as part of the PhysicaL ACtivity and diEtary implicatioNs Throughout pregnAncy study (PLACENTA, 2017–2019, analysis completed in 2020). Recruitment was facilitated through flyers posted in midwifery and obstetrics clinics, fitness and community center settings, and on social media. This

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Tanya Prewitt-White, Christopher P. Connolly, Yuri Feito, Alexandra Bladek, Sarah Forsythe, Logan Hamel, and Mary Ryan McChesney

Pregnant women are recommended to engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week ( Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2008 ). An impressive array of health benefits during pregnancy and at childbirth supports this recommendation, including a reduced

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Rebecca A. Schlaff, Meghan Baruth, Faith C. LaFramboise, and Samantha J. Deere

during pregnancy and/or in the postpartum period may assist in attenuating depressive symptoms, though findings are mixed. 10 – 14 In spite of physical activity participation during pregnancy being safe and recommended in low-risk pregnancies, 15 a majority of US women have difficulty achieving

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Eduardo L. Caputo, Paulo H. Ferreira, Manuela L. Ferreira, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Marlos R. Domingues, Debra Shirley, and Marcelo C. Silva

Physical activity offers significant benefits in the prevention of health complications that are commonly related to pregnancy, such as excessive body weight gain and diabetes. 1 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that, during pregnancy, women should engage

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Melissa A. Jones, Kara Whitaker, McKenzie Wallace, and Bethany Barone Gibbs

Physical activity during pregnancy is considered safe and encouraged for women with uncomplicated pregnancies. 1 The benefits are well established and include reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preterm birth. 1 For this