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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac, and Semra Topuz

extremities, shortens labor, and reduces the stillbirth rate. 3 – 6 In addition, physical activity promotes fetal development by modulating the intrauterine environment. 3 Therefore, physical activity prescriptions should be made specifically for each pregnant women by medical professionals taking into

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Melissa A. Jones, Sara J. Diesel, Bethany Barone Gibbs, and Kara M. Whitaker

populations: a cohort study of pregnant women and baseline data from a clinical trial of desk workers. Accurate measurement of MVPA and SED in these populations is pertinent due to their unique barriers to MVPA ( Evenson et al., 2009 ; Planchard et al., 2018 ) and propensity for high SED ( Barone Gibbs, 2020

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Christopher P. Connolly, Jordana Dahmen, Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, and Alexander H.K. Montoye

, 2009 ), providing prenatal health professionals with a solid body of evidence to encourage pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies to be physically active. Nevertheless, previous investigations indicate that the majority of pregnant women are not sufficiently active, with only 10–23% meeting

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Samantha F. Ehrlich, Amanda J. Casteel, Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing, Monique M. Hedderson, Susan D. Brown, Maren Galarce, Dawn P. Coe, David R. Bassett, and Assiamira Ferrara

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that pregnant women participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (PA) per week ( Piercy et al., 2018 ; The American College of Obstetricians

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Janelle M. Wagnild and Tessa M. Pollard

(in the evening) might interfere with postprandial glucose metabolism. 1 , 2 However, to our knowledge, these possibilities have not been empirically tested. The aim of this paper is to compare the duration and patterns of ST between those with high and low TV time among a sample of pregnant women

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Danilo Fernandes da Silva, Shuhiba Mohammad, Taniya Singh Nagpal, Sara Carolina Scremin Souza, Rachel C. Colley, and Kristi Bree Adamo

with clinically relevant health improvements and reduces risks for pregnancy complications. 2 Unfortunately, only 15% of pregnant women report meeting PA guidelines, 3 and PA levels seem to decrease as pregnancy progresses. 4 Often the assessment of PA patterns in adults, including those who are

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Danielle Symons Downs, Guy C. LeMasurier, and Jennifer M. DiNallo

Background:

Research examining women’s pregnancy physical activity (PA) behaviors with objective measures is scant. Therefore, 2 studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of pregnant women wearing pedometers and to examine women’s self-reported and objectively measured PA behaviors.

Methods:

Participants were pregnant women (Study 1 N = 50, Study 2 N = 30) who completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and wore a Yamax pedometer for 3 consecutive days during free living at 20- and 32-weeks gestation.

Results:

As predicted in Study 1, we found (a) 100% participant agreement in wearing the pedometer and (b) LTEQ min and pedometer-determined indices classified 67% to 86% of the participants as insufficiently active at 20-weeks gestation. In Study 2, as hypothesized, (a) mean steps/d, LTEQ total, strenuous, and mild min of PA were positively associated at 20- and 32-weeks gestation; (b) mean steps/d and LTEQ strenuous min significantly declined from 20- to 32-weeks gestation; and (c) more women were classified as sedentary and low active at 32-weeks (73%) compared with 20-weeks gestation (50%).

Conclusions:

These findings are consistent with previous epidemiological evidence documenting the decline in women’s PA behaviors across the trimesters. They also illustrate that pedometer-determined indices might be a useful tool facilitating PA adoption and maintenance during pregnancy.

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Werner de Andrade Müller, Grégore Iven Mielke, Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Mariangela F. Silveira, and Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

cohort study followed pregnant women in 2 moments, prenatal and perinatal, as shown in Figure  1 . Figure 1 —2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort recruitment and follow-up (adapted from Hallal et al 27 ). The recruitment of participants on prenatal follow-up began during prenatal care, by enrolling pregnant women

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Danielle Symons Downs, Courtenay A. Devlin, and Ryan E. Rhodes

Background:

Nearly 50% of U.S. women enter pregnancy as overweight or obese (OW/OB). There is a critical need to understand how to motivate OW/OB pregnant women for exercise behavior to improve their health and reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Purpose:

To examine salient Theory of Planned Behavior belief predictors of normal weight (NW) and OW/OB pregnant women’s exercise behavior (EXB) across pregnancy.

Methods:

Pregnant women (N = 357) self-reported their exercise beliefs and behavior during each pregnancy trimester. Pearson correlations were used to examine exercise beliefs-behavior associations. Stepwise regressions were used to identify trimester (TRI) 1 and TRI 2 belief predictors of TRI 2 and TRI 3 EXB, respectively, for each weight status group. Belief endorsement was examined to identify critical beliefs.

Results:

TRI 1 EXB beliefs explained 58% of the total variance (22% NW, 36% OW/OB) in TRI 2 EXB. TRI 2 EXB beliefs explained 32% of the total variance (17% NW, 15% OW/OB) in TRI 3 EXB. Individual beliefs varied by weight status and trimester. Control beliefs emerged with the lowest endorsement; making them most critical to target for exercise interventions.

Conclusion:

Prenatal exercise interventions should be weight status specific and target salient beliefs/barriers unique to the pregnancy trimesters.

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Yan Wang, Lea A. Cupul-Uicab, Walter J. Rogan, Merete Eggesbo, Gregory Travlos, Ralph Wilson, and Matthew P. Longnecker

Background:

Pregnant women who are physically active have a lower risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes than women who are less active. One possible mechanism is a reduction in low-grade inflammation, as measured by plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between exercise and CRP in pregnant women, however, has not been adequately investigated.

Methods:

A total of 537 pregnant women, enrolled around the 17th week of gestation in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 to 2004, were studied. Self-reported recreational exercise was recalled for both 3 months before pregnancy and early pregnancy. The total energy expenditure from recreational exercise (total recreational exercise, metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-hr/week) was estimated, and low-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise was defined. Plasma CRP concentrations were measured during pregnancy.

Results:

In adjusted linear regression models, mean CRP concentration was 1.0% lower [95% CI = –1.9% to 0.2%] with each 1 MET-hr/week of total recreational exercise before pregnancy. In addition, vigorous-intensity exercise before pregnancy was more strongly related to a reduction in CRP levels than low- or moderate-intensity exercise. However, we observed no association between recreational exercise during pregnancy and plasma CRP levels.

Conclusion:

Recreational exercise before pregnancy, especially vigorous exercise, may reduce the risk of maternal inflammation during pregnancy.