-of-fit tests (0.1 = small, 0.3 = medium, and 0.5 = large; Cohen, 1988 ). Results Energy and Macronutrient Intake The mean ± SD for energy and macronutrient intake on Day 1, Day 2, and match day (prematch: 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.) are presented in Table 1 . Absolute macronutrient intakes are reported in
Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall
Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans and Clare L. Minahan
be determined whether team-sport athletes similarly regulate their running and movement intensity during match play as they do in training in response to changes in subjective wellness. Only one previous study 13 has examined the associations between the changes in prematch wellness and changes in
Ryland Morgans, Adam Owen, Dominic Doran, Barry Drust and James P. Morton
To monitor resting salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in international soccer players during the short-term training period that precedes international match play.
In a repeated-measure design, saliva samples were obtained from 13 outfield soccer players who participated in the training camps preceding 7 games (5 home and 2 away) of the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign. Samples were obtained daily for 4 d preceding each game (and analyzed for SIgA using the IPRO oral-fluid-collection system) at match day minus 1 (MD-1), minus 2 (MD-2), minus 3 (MD-3), and minus 4 (MD-4).
SIgA displayed a progressive decline (P = .01) during the 4-d training period (MD-4, 365 ± 127 μg/mL; MD-3, 348 ± 154 μg/mL; MD-2, 290 ± 138 μg/mL; MD-1, 256 ± 90 μg/mL) such that MD-1 values were significantly lower (P = .01) than both MD-4 and MD-3. The 95% confidence intervals for the differences between MD-1 and MD-4 were –191 to –26 and between MD-1 and MD-3 were –155 to –28.
Data demonstrate that a short-term soccer-training camp in preparation for international competition induces detectable perturbations to mucosal immunity. Future studies should monitor SIgA (as a practical and noninvasive measure of immunity) alongside internal and external measures of training load in an attempt to strategically individualize training and nutritional strategies that may support optimal preparation for high-level competition.
Umut Ziya Kocak and Bayram Unver
, we believe that the ability of the FMS to predict injury may be enhanced if it were performed in a fatigue state. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of fatigue (prematch vs postmatch fatigue) on FMS scores. Methods Study Design This study is designed as an experimental
Daniel Bok and Igor Jukić
mostly responsible for inducing muscle damage. Studies also show that prematch values can be influenced by a player’s aerobic fitness, 10 whereas postmatch values can be influenced by lower-limb strength. 11 Aerobically less fit Australian rules football players present higher prematch [CK], even with
Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton
mmol/kg dry weight [dw]. We also observed similar absolute glycogen utilization and relative depletion rates in English professional rugby league players during competitive match play. 6 Nonetheless, in the absence of a controlled carbohydrate (CHO) loading protocol, it is noteworthy that prematch
Joel Garrett, Stuart R. Graham, Roger G. Eston, Darren J. Burgess, Lachlan J. Garrett, John Jakeman and Kevin Norton
within normal recovery strategy routines within this period. Measures were taken at 3 specific time points (TP): baseline, 24 hours prematch (TP-1), 48 hours postmatch (TP-2), and 96 hours postmatch (TP-3). Methodology CMJ Test The CMJ test was performed using previously established protocols 3 with the
Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre
–maximum range. Results The data on sleep behavior are reported in Table 2 and Figure 1 . The analysis highlighted significant differences for all actigraph parameters. For what concerns sleep volume, lower time in bed and total sleep time were observed at POST 1 compared with prematch sleep and POST 2. Sleep
Darren J. Paul, Gustavo Tomazoli and George P. Nassis
.2 (large), and >2.0 (very large). 13 All statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 21.0; IBM, Armonk, NY). Descriptive statistics of the data are presented as mean (SD). Results Test–retest reproducibility for the prematch −2 hours (6.9 [1
Daniel Gould, Robert C. Eklund, Linda Petlichkoff, Kirsten Peterson and Linda Bump
This study examined psychological correlates of performance in youth wrestlers by replicating and extending the findings of Scanlan et al. (18). A secondary purpose was to replicate and extend work on antecedents of pre- and postcompetitive state anxiety. A total of 202 youth wrestlers, ages 13 and 14, completed a background questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, trait anxiety, achievement orientations, and characteristic prematch cognitions prior to participating in an age-group wrestling tournament. Prematch performance expectancies and prematch state anxiety were also assessed 10 to 20 minutes before Rounds 1 and 2 of the tournament. Postmatch assessments of satisfaction and state anxiety were conducted immediately after both bouts. Results partially replicated those of Scanlan et al. (18), that is, wrestlers who performed best had more years of experience and higher prematch performance expectancies. Pre- and postmatch competitive state anxiety antecedent variables of trait anxiety, prematch performance expectancies, and parental-pressure-to-participate anxiety were also replicated.