Preterm birth is defined as birth occurring at less than 37 weeks of gestation. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States, and it is estimated that 15 million babies are born prematurely around the world every year. It is well recognized that premature
Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz and Dan Nemet
Giampietro L. Vairo, Nicole M. McBrier, Sayers John Miller and William E. Buckley
Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown
premature mortality. We approached this study of physical activity and premature mortality through the conceptual framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH; Solar & Irwin, 2010 ). The CSDH conceptual framework suggests that “social, economic and political mechanisms give rise to a
Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert
consequences is in a stage of infancy—the focus on intervention research might even be considered premature. The time is ripe for focal inquiry on sedentary behavior in MS and for initiating a new paradigm shift on health-behavior change in this population. References Aminian , S. , Ezeugwu , V.E. , Motl
Elaine Leonezi Guimarães, Andréa Baraldi Cunha, Daniele de Almeida Soares and Eloisa Tudella
The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine and discuss studies that investigated reaching in preterm infants during the first year of life. Databases were searched using keywords such as reaching, grasping, preterm, and premature, in addition to specific terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (motor skills, infant, movement, premature birth, hands) regardless of year of publication. One hundred thirty-five studies were identified, 9 of which were selected. The results showed that preterm infants adopt strategies (bimanual reaches and reaches with less rectilinear trajectories toward an object in motion, reaches with semi-open and open hand, reaches at lower speeds, with increased movement units, and variable postural muscle activity) compared with full-term infants. However, the results on how intrinsic factors (e.g., prematurity) and extrinsic factors (e.g., body position, physical properties of the object) influence early reaching are still limited.
Monika Grygorowicz, Martyna Michałowska, Paulina Jurga, Tomasz Piontek, Honorata Jakubowska and Tomasz Kotwicki
girls quitting football prematurely. Thus, this study was designed to analyze what are the main causes that make female players quit playing football. The aim of the study was to find the reasons for sports career termination in female football players in country-specific conditions. We hypothesize that
Ketsia Proulx, Annette Majnemer, Noémi Dahan-Oliel, Barbara Mazer, Line Nadeau, Kathleen Vanier and Désirée B. Maltais
Little is known about the physical activity of adolescents born prematurely. This study aimed to: 1) describe relationships between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adolescents born prematurely and various factors and, 2) compare their MVPA level to guidelines.
A secondary analysis was performed using data from 64 adolescents (16.1 ± 2.5 years old, born £29 weeks gestation; 57.8% girls). Time spent in MVPA was based on accelerometry data. Sociodemographic, prematurity and comorbidity variables were based on questionnaire data or, for movement difficulty, from the results of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—Second Edition.
Multiple regression analysis showed that participants who were older (b = -4.52, p < .001), female (b = 14.18, p = .014), with movement difficulty (b = 18.64, p = .014), with health problems (b = 11.78, p = .036) and without hyperactive behavior (trend, b = 2.04, p = .099) spent less time in MVPA. Together these variables explained 44.4% of the variance in MVPA. Most participants (79.7%) did not meet Canadian MVPA guidelines.
Study results suggest that physical activity interventions should especially target adolescents born prematurely who are older, female, with health problems, and with marked movement difficulties.
Ian J. Dempsey, Grant E. Norte, Matthew Hall, John Goetschius, Lindsay V. Slater, Jourdan M. Cancienne, Brian C. Werner, David R. Diduch and Joseph M. Hart
with respect to the contralateral limb. However, this finding is somewhat counterintuitive when considering return-to-sport status and may suggest that patients are returning to activity prematurely or that patients who return to their preinjury activity level are not doing so because of strength alone
Barbara E. Ainsworth and Steven P. Hooker
The health-enhancing benefits of regular physical activity have been theorized for thousands of years. Within the past 25 years, public health agencies, health-related organizations, and health-focused foundations have recognized regular physical activity as a major factor in preventing premature morbidity and mortality. Colleges and universities have experienced a paradigm shift in applying public health strategies to prepare graduates in understanding how to reduce the impact of sedentary lifestyles on health outcomes. For nearly 20 years, some kinesiology departments have expanded from traditional curricula to new courses and degrees in promoting physical activity in the community, the application of epidemiology concepts to physical activity, and the study of policy and environmental approaches to promoting physical activity. Given the high prevalence of physical activity insufficient to prevent premature morbidity and mortality, continuing educational efforts are needed to assure kinesiology students have the skills and information needed to promote physical activity in communities to people of all ages and abilities.
Stephen P. Sayers
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disease affecting muscle fiber integrity in boys that leads to progressive weakness in skeletal muscle and premature death. Currently, there is no known cure for the disease. Different interventions have been explored to delay the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life for the DMD patient. Physical activity is one treatment that has generated controversy due to the increased mechanical stress placed on the muscle during contraction. This review explores the literature in animal models and human DMD patients and evaluates the known theoretical risks and benefits of increased physical activity in DMD patients.