-term emotional exposure ( Baumeister, Vohs, DeWall, & Zhang, 2007 ) and provide important preparation ( Arnold, Hewton, & Fletcher, 2015 ) that is essential to competitive performance. Previous research on athletic talent development has sought to identify the variables present in such environments. However
Steve M. Smith, Stewart T. Cotterill and Hazel Brown
Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini
general and specific preparation periods at the beginning of the season are considered crucial phases in preparing athletes for competition. In this period, athletes begin training after a period of complete or near-to-complete rest. The initial phase (general preparation) should provide a gradual
Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett and Nick Winkelman
across all levels to create parity of competition, physical preparation comes into focus in a sport with unique match and competition demands. The aims of this paper are to provide a detailed outline of current practice methods used by practitioners at the highest level of physical preparation in rugby
Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer and Sam Robertson
Golf tournaments occur over a period of days and comprise a series of rounds. Each round involves the golfer playing 18 holes in as few shots as possible. Golfers have the opportunity for preparation in the days preceding a tournament (pretournament preparation) and the period before and after each
The ability to prepare effectively to execute complex skills under pressure is crucial in a number of performance-focused professions. While there is emerging evidence of best practice little research has sought to compare preparation strategies across professions. As a result, the aim of this research was to explore the approaches employed within a number of professions and whether there are similarities in the techniques and strategies adopted. Participants were 18 “performers,” purposefully selected from sporting, musical, performing arts, and medical domains. Participants were interviewed individually to gain an understanding of each participant’s preparation strategies and the functions these strategies fulfilled. The data were thematically analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results suggest that there are similarities in both behavioral and mental strategies adopted across professions. Future research should seek to explore the transferability of developmental approaches.
Ja Youn Kwon, Pamela H. Kulinna, Hans van der Mars, Audrey Amrein-Beardsley and Mirka Koro-Ljungberg
for the whole of school health models such as CSPAP, it may be necessary to reassess professional preparation programs for preservice physical education teachers. Along with introducing the CSPAP model, PETE faculty and researchers have suggested that PETE programs should prepare preservice teachers
Samuel Ryan, Aaron J. Coutts, Joel Hocking, Patrick A. Dillon, Anthony Whitty and Thomas Kempton
data collected by professional sporting teams, 2 it is likely a number of elements of a player’s preparation influence their performance during competition. Therefore, it is important to routinely quantify the training being completed by players and their response to this stimulus. 1 When training
Daniel Gould, Robert Weinberg and Allen Jackson
Two experiments were conducted to determine if different mental preparation strategies produced differential strength performance and whether arousal was the major mediating variable explicating this relationship. In the first experiment, 15 male and 15 female subjects performed under five different mental preparation conditions in a 2 × 5 (sex by mental preparation strategy) Latin square design. The mental preparation conditions included: attentional focus, imagery, preparatory arousal, a control-rest condition, and a counting backwards cognitive-distraction condition. Immediately after employing each technique, all subjects performed four trials on a leg-strength task, and measures of state anxiety and other cognitions were then obtained. The findings revealed that the preparatory arousal and imagery techniques produced the greatest change in performance, with preparatory arousal subjects also reporting the greatest changes in cognitive states. However, due to the possibility of range effects resulting from the within-subjects design used in Experiment I, a second between-subjects experiment was conducted. Thirty males and 30females performed in a 2 × 3 (sex by mental preparation) design using the preparatory arousal, imagery and control conditions of Experiment 1. Only the preparatory arousal condition was found to facilitate performance. However, no consistent changes in cognitive states were found between experiments, and these inconsistent findings were interpreted as being caused by methodological problems associated with self-report assessment of cognitive states.
Patrick G. Campbell, Jonathan M. Peake and Geoffrey M. Minett
of rugby union. Of particular importance is the specificity of current training practices in preparation for competitive match demands. Rugby coaching practices are anecdotally known to extensively utilize strategies that remove the performance context from the skill (eg, unopposed or passive skills
Brandon M. Kistler, Peter J. Fitschen, Sushant M. Ranadive, Bo Fernhall and Kenneth R. Wilund
The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO2peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R 2 = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m2) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.