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The Cognitive Component of Elite High Jumpers’ Preperformance Routines

Thomas Gretton, Lindsey Blom, Dorice Hankemeier, and Lawrence Judge

Across the last two decades, preperformance routine (PPR) research has continued to expand its reach, finding use across different sports and application to athletes, coaches, and sport psychology professionals ( Hagan & Schack, 2019 ). However, many avenues extending from and within this area of

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Effect of Preperformance Routine on Advanced Swimmers’ Performance and Motor Efficiency, Self-Efficacy, and Idiosyncratic Emotions

Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum

The moment prior to competition is crucial for athletes to reach their optimal state of readiness and to facilitate automatic skill execution ( Singer, 2002 ). To gain control over this stressful moment, many athletes use a preperformance routine (PPR), that is, a repeatable series of motor and

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Preperformance Routines in Sport: Theoretical Support and Practical Applications

Patrick J. Cohn

The purpose of this review is to discuss the theoretical and empirical support for the use of cognitive behavioral preperformance routines in sport and also to provide suggestions for the practitioner in developing and structuring cognitive and behavioral preparatory routines given the nature of the task and personal preferences. The first section discusses the underlying theoretical assumptions supporting the use of preperformance routines. The second section elaborates on empirical research that has been conducted on cognitive behavioral interventions and preperformance routines in sport. The final section details the practical implications of routines based upon theories and research in the area and provides recommendations for developing and teaching preperformance routines to athletes.

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Can Beginning Learners Benefit from Preperformance Routines When Serving in Volleyball?

Ronnie Lidor and Zohar Mayan

Two studies were carried out in order to examine the effectiveness of preperformance routines when learning a self-paced motor skill in volleyball. In Study 1, observational and verbal data were collected on elite male volleyball players in order to determine patterns of motor behaviors performed before they served the ball. In Study 2, beginning female learners were taught two variations of preperformance routines when learning the serve in volleyball: motor-emphasized and cognitive-emphasized. The routines were developed based on the data collected in Study 1. The data analyses revealed that the motor-emphasized learners were more accurate than the cognitive-emphasized learners in retention trials. It was concluded that it may be more beneficial for beginning learners to perform preparatory routines in which an emphasis is made on motor preparation.

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A Proposed Three-Stage Postperformance-Routine Framework

Jason Kostrna, Jean-Charles Lebeau, Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, and Brian Foster

In sport, there are key moments that can determine games, seasons, and careers. The period leading to these moments is the focus of intense research on preperformance routine (PPR) in sport psychology. Consistent PPRs have been shown to increase performance across a number of sports and populations

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A Mental Warm-Up for Athletes

Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Albert J. Petitpas

concept of a mental warm-up can be found most directly in the literature on preperformance routines. Preperformance routines are “a systematic response of task-relevant thoughts and actions which an athlete engages in systematically before his or her performance of a specific sport skill” ( Moran, 1996

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Nebraska’s 3 R’s: One-Play-at-a-Time Preperformance Routine for Collegiate Football

Kenneth Ravizza and Thomas Osborne

Described is a preperformance cognitive-behavioral routine that was developed for the University of Nebraska football team. The routine is based on the premise that to perform effectively, football players must focus on one play at a time by exhibiting self-control and taking responsibility for optimal performance. The resulting 3-step “ready, respond, and refocus” routine emphasized that the play begins with the “ready” signal in the huddle, is followed by the play or “respond” component, and ends with a whistle. The time period from the end of one play to the beginning of the next is the athlete’s time to “refocus,” process, and mentally let go of the previous play. Examples of the “ready, respond, and refocus” routine are given and ways of implementing and teaching it are discussed.

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A Grounded Theory of Young Tennis Players’ Use of Music to Manipulate Emotional State

Daniel T. Bishop, Costas I. Karageorghis, and Georgios Loizou

The main objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate young tennis players’ use of music to manipulate emotional states, and (b) to present a model grounded in present data to illustrate this phenomenon and to stimulate further research. Anecdotal evidence suggests that music listening is used regularly by elite athletes as a preperformance strategy, but only limited empirical evidence corroborates such use. Young tennis players (N = 14) were selected purposively for interview and diary data collection. Results indicated that participants consciously selected music to elicit various emotional states; frequently reported consequences of music listening included improved mood, increased arousal, and visual and auditory imagery. The choice of music tracks and the impact of music listening were mediated by a number of factors, including extramusical associations, inspirational lyrics, music properties, and desired emotional state. Implications for the future investigation of preperformance music are discussed.

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Preshot Routines to Improve Competition Performance: A Case Study of a Group of Elite Pistol Shooters

Peter Gröpel, Christopher Mesagno, and Jürgen Beckmann

Evidence shows that using a preshot routine (PSR) improves performance in self-paced, closed-skill tasks. A PSR is a set of cognitive and behavioral elements an athlete systematically engages in prior to performance execution. The present study describes the implementation and evaluation of a PSR intervention with elite pistol shooters in the 10-m air-pistol discipline. Individualized PSRs were developed with the shooters in individual psychological sessions, and the PSRs were then practiced in subsequent training sessions. Intervention effectiveness was evaluated by analyzing the shooters’ competition performance. Overall, the shooters improved on average by 2.5 points from before to after the intervention. This improvement was unlikely due to seasonal effect, as the league average (scores of league shooters not included in the intervention sample) remained stable during the study time. These results indicate that using a PSR before a shooting series has benefits for subsequent shooting performance.

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Serving a Brief-Contact Cognitive Behavior Therapy Intervention in Youth Tennis Using a Single-Case Design

Zoe Louise Moffat and Paul McCarthy

assessing serve percentage seemed a satisfactory target behavior. The serve is the only closed-skill in tennis ( Hernandez-Davo et al., 2014 ). Research investigating closed-skill performance (e.g., golf, diving, and archery) indicates a relationship between preperformance routine stability and performance