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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Diana M. Camargo-Lemos, and Mark S. Tremblay

Regular physical activity (PA) is one of the most important behaviors for health promotion and disease prevention. 1 Among preschoolers, PA is associated with improved motor and cognitive development, better psychosocial and metabolic health, and favorable fitness and bone health. 2 Similarly, in

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Sandy J. Slater, Anmol Sanghera, Yadira Herrera, and Jamie F. Chriqui

In the United States, young children, including those in preschool (under 5 y) from low-income families, are more likely to be obese. 1 Regular physical activity (PA) is one health behavior that prevents obesity and promotes cardiovascular health, 2 yet only half of children meet current daily PA

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, and Sarah Burkart

could potentially reduce the detrimental impact of physical-inactivity-related health outcomes as children age. Therefore, experts have recommended that physical activity interventions be initiated as early as possible (i.e., preschool age; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 ). Due to

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Cory J. Greever, and Matthew N. Ahmadi

Obesity-related health behaviors (ORHBs) have been identified as risk factors for increased unhealthy weight gain in preschoolers (2.9–5 y). 1 – 3 ORHBs include low physical activity (PA), obesogenic dietary intake patterns (lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater consumption of energy

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Eva D’Hondt, Fotini Venetsanou, Antonis Kambas, and Matthieu Lenoir

physical education policies ( Bardid et al., 2015 ; Brian et al., 2018 ) as part of the outer layers of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model for child development ( Bronfenbrenner, 1979 ). To begin with, a near universal enrolment (ranging from 98–100%) of 3- to 5-year-olds in preschool education is reported

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Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock, and Norman Wirsik

what extent the published METs can also be applied to preschoolers. 1 Although some research has been done on predicting EE for different activities in preschoolers, it is, however, limited due to the use of direct observation (and again rigid estimates of METs) as the criterion measurement, as was

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Ali Brian, Adam Pennell, Ryan Sacko, and Michaela Schenkelburg

proficient MC and participate in PA during early childhood to combat the negative developmental trajectories associated with an unhealthy weight status. In response to these concerns, multiple organizations have established guidelines or standards that address motor skill development and PA in preschools. In

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Yvonne G. Ellis, Dylan P. Cliff, Steven J. Howard, and Anthony D. Okely

intensity) ( 31 ). Preschoolers appear to spend ∼64% of their waking time sedentary, predominantly sitting ( 12 , 19 ). Spending prolonged periods in SB seems to be negatively associated with health and developmental outcomes in children, particularly children who are obese ( 7 , 24 , 32 ). In preschoolers

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Jiying Ling, Lorraine B. Robbins, Fujun Wen, and Wei Peng

Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers’ physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2–5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers’ physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

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Paddy C. Favazza, Gary N. Siperstein, Susan A. Zeisel, Samuel L. Odom, John H. Sideris, and Andrew L. Moskowitz

This study examined the effectiveness of the Young Athletes program to promote motor development in preschool-aged children with disabilities. In the study, 233 children were randomly assigned to a control group or the Young Athletes (YA) intervention group which consisted of 24 motor skill lessons delivered 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) showed that children who participated in the YA intervention exhibited mean gains of 7–9 months on the Peabody Developmental Motor Subscales (PDMS) compared with mean gains of 3–5 months for the control group. Children in the YA intervention also exhibited significant gains on the gross motor subscale of the Vineland Teacher Rating Form (VTRF). Teachers and parents reported benefits for children not only in specific motor skills, but also kindergarten readiness skills and social/play skills. The necessity for direct and intentional instruction of motor skills, as well as the challenges of involving families in the YA program, are discussed.