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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

most important finding from the reviews was a lack of reporting on exercise prescription adherence. No review detailed the type of exercise prescribed or the extent to which the participant adhered to the prescription. Reviews did report the term adherence; however, it must be understood that this term

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Christina E. Miyawaki, Rebecca L. Mauldin and Carolyn R. Carman

eyes and prescribe glasses, but also diagnose and write medication prescriptions to treat many eye diseases ( National Conference of State Legislatures, 2019 ; Texas Optometry Board, 2019 ). Older adults tend to visit optometrists more frequently than people from other age groups ( Wood et al., 2011

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Pilar Lavielle Sotomayor, Gerardo Huitron Bravo, Analí López Fernández and Juan Talavera Piña

prioritized preventive measure for public health. 4 Health service activities should be reoriented toward health promotion and must involve physicians in the prescription of PA. 5 , 6 They have frequent contact with a large percentage of the population and are a respected source of information for patients

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Alejandro Javaloyes, Jose Manuel Sarabia, Robert Patrick Lamberts and Manuel Moya-Ramon

, 18 In addition, the increase of the performance after a training period (TW) is related to an increase in resting HRV. 8 However promising the results of monitoring athletes, only a few studies 5 , 19 , 20 have looked at using CAR markers to prescribe or regulate exercise prescription. This HRV

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

utility of real-time PO measures as a training monitoring and prescription tool. 20 In recent work from our laboratory, we have utilized such technology to validate an on-water GXT, where stages are incremented by PO. 13 Although this test appears to provide valid and reliable physiological outcomes, 13

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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird and Amanda Clare Benson

Rehabilitation Association, 2004 ). Despite physical capacity being associated with cardiac treatment ( Ades et al., 2006 ; Sumide et al., 2009 ), current Australian guidelines ( National Heart Foundation of Australia & Australian Cardiac Rehabilitation Association, 2004 ) for exercise prescription in cardiac

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Saud F. Alsubaie, Susan L. Whitney, Joseph M. Furman, Gregory F. Marchetti, Kathleen H. Sienko and Patrick J. Sparto

, moving the head in yaw or pitch directions) may be undertaken before determining the exercise prescription. To properly assess subjects’ performance during balance and vestibular exercises so that decisions can be made about progression of those exercises, the reliability of performance should be established

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Stephen Seiler and Øystein Sylta

The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses and perceived exertion among well-trained cyclists (n = 63) performing 3 different high-intensity interval-training (HIIT) prescriptions differing in work-bout duration and accumulated duration but all prescribed with maximal session effort. Subjects (male, mean ± SD 38 ± 8 y, VO2peak 62 ± 6 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed up to 24 HIIT sessions over 12 wk as part of a training-intervention study. Sessions were prescribed as 4 × 16, 4 × 8, or 4 × 4 min with 2-min recovery periods (8 sessions of each prescription, balanced over time). Power output, HR, and RPE were collected during and after each work bout. Session RPE was reported after each session. Blood lactate samples were collected throughout the 12 wk. Physiological and perceptual responses during >1400 training sessions were analyzed. HIIT sessions were performed at 95% ± 5%, 106% ± 5%, and 117% ± 6% of 40-min time-trial power during 4 × 16-, 4 × 8-, and 4 × 4-min sessions, respectively, with peak HR in each work bout averaging 89% ± 2%, 91% ± 2%, and 94% ± 2% HRpeak. Blood lactate concentrations were 4.7 ± 1.6, 9.2 ± 2.4, and 12.7 ± 2.7 mmol/L. Despite the common prescription of maximal session effort, RPE and sRPE increased with decreasing accumulated work duration (AWD), tracking relative HR. Only 8% of 4 × 16-min sessions reached RPE 19–20, vs 61% of 4 × 4-min sessions. The authors conclude that within the HIIT duration range, performing at “maximal session effort” over a reduced AWD is associated with higher perceived exertion both acutely and postexercise. This may have important implications for HIIT prescription choices.

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Jace A. Delaney, Heidi R. Thornton, John F. Pryor, Andrew M. Stewart, Ben J. Dascombe and Grant M. Duthie


To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies.


Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from 2 nations across 33 international matches. A moving-average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m/min), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m/s2), and average metabolic power (Pmet) for a range of durations (1–10 min). Differences between positions and durations were described using a magnitude-based network.


Peak running intensity increased as the length of the moving average decreased. There were likely small to moderate increases in relative distance and AveAcc for outside backs, halfbacks, and loose forwards compared with the tight 5 group across all moving-average durations (effect size [ES] = 0.27–1.00). Pmet demands were at least likely greater for outside backs and halfbacks than for the tight 5 (ES = 0.86–0.99). Halfbacks demonstrated the greatest relative distance and Pmet outputs but were similar to outside backs and loose forwards in AveAcc demands.


The current study has presented a framework to describe the peak running intensities achieved during international rugby competition by position, which are considerably higher than previously reported whole-period averages. These data provide further knowledge of the peak activity profiles of international rugby competition, and this information can be used to assist coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

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Timothy R. McConnell, Jean H. Haas and Nancy C. Conlin

Thirty-eight children (mean age 12.2 ±3.6 yrs) were tested to (a) compare the training heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) computed from commonly used exercise prescription methods to the heart rate (HRAT) and V̇O2 (ATge) at the gas exchange anaerobic threshold, (b) compute the range of relative HRs and V̇O2s (% HRmax and % V̇O2max, respectively) at which the ATge occurred, and (c) discuss the implications for prescribing exercise intensity. The ATge occurred at a V̇O2 of 20.9 ml · kg−1 · min−1 and an HR of 129 beats·min−1. The training HR and V̇O2 computed using 70 and 85% HRmax, 70% of the maximal heart rate reserve (HRR), and 57 and 78% V·O2max, were significantly different (p<.05) from their corresponding ATge values. To compute training % HRmax, % V̇O2max, and % HRR values that would not significantly differ from the ATge, then 68% HRmax, 48% V̇O2max, and 41% HRR would need to be used for the current population.