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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

presence of BP, we employed the scale “current pain intensity” gathered from the validated version of the Chronic Pain Grade Scale, 44 which was originally developed by Von Korff et al. 45 A value of ≥1 on the scale ranging from 0 to 10 corresponded to BP = “yes,” whereas 0 represented BP = “no.” As the

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Mallory S. Kobak, Andrew Lepp, Michael J. Rebold, Hannah Faulkner, Shannon Martin and Jacob E. Barkley

and sedentary behavior during 2 separate simulated recess conditions: with and without the presence of a mobile Internet-connected tablet computer (ie, Apple iPad). We hypothesized that children’s physical activity would be greater and sedentary behavior will be lesser in the condition with no iPad

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Renate M. Leithäuser

worldwide TV audience of more than 3.4 billion and an anticipated FIFA revenue reaching $6 billion. In any top sport event widely played at the grassroots level, making everyone a “highly qualified expert” offering “comprehensive expert advice” to his or her national coaches, the media presence is massive

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Dustin A. Hahn

examining the presence and likability of structural forms and subjects depicted in social media posts produced by major sport broadcasting networks during a popular national sporting event. Literature Review When Williams ( 1977 ) first set out to examine the nature of football telecasts, he began by noting

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Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Rodney Siegel, Andrew E. Kilding and Paul B. Laursen

The oral presence of carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) may independently enhance exercise performance, but their influence on performance during prolonged exercise is less known.

Aim:

To determine the independent and combined effects of CHO and CAF administered in chewing gum during a cycling time trial (TT) after prolonged exercise.

Method:

Eleven male cyclists (32.2 ± 7.5 y, 74.3 ± 6.8 kg, 60.2 ± 4.0 mL · kg–1 · min1 V˙O2peak) performed 4 experimental trials consisting of 90-min constant-load cycling at 80% of their second ventilatory threshold (207 ± 30 W), followed immediately by a 20-km TT. Under double-blinded conditions, cyclists received placebo (PLA), CHO, CAF, or a combined CHO+CAF chewing gum at 0-, 5-, 10-, and 15-km points of the TT.

Results:

Overall TT performance was similar across experimental and PLA trials (%mean difference ± 90%CL 0.2% ± 2.0%, 0.4% ± 2.2%, 0.1% ± 1.8% for CHO, CAF, and CHO+CAF). Compared with PLA, mean power output tended to be higher in the first 2 quarters of the TT with CHO (1.6% ± 3.1% and 0.8% ± 2.0%) and was substantially improved in the last 2 quarters during CAF and CHO+CAF trials (4.2% ± 3.0% and 2.0% ± 1.8%). There were no differences in average heart rate (ES <0.2) and only small changes in blood glucose (ES 0.2), which were unrelated to performance. Blood lactate was substantially higher post-TT for CAF and CHO+CAF (ES >0.6).

Conclusion:

After prolonged constant-load cycling, the oral presence of CHO and CAF in chewing gum, independently or in combination, did not improve overall performance but did influence pacing.

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Amanda L. Snyder, Cay Anderson-Hanley and Paul J. Arciero

Grounded in social facilitation theory, this study compared the impact on exercise intensity of a virtual versus a live competitor, when riding a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike (“cybercycle”). It was hypothesized that competitiveness would moderate effects. Twenty-three female college students were exposed to three conditions on a cybercycle: solo training, virtual competitor, and live competitor. After training without a competitor (solo condition for familiarization with equipment), participants competed against a virtual avatar or live rider (random order of presentation). A repeated-measures analysis revealed a significant condition (virtual/live) by competitiveness (high/low) interaction for exercise intensity (watts). More competitive participants exhibited significantly greater exercise intensity when competing against a live versus virtual competitor. The implication is that live competitors can have an added social facilitation effect and influence exercise intensity, although competitiveness moderates this effect.

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Karen E. Danylchuk

The prevalence of occupational burnout and its relationship to job Stressors and job attitudes were examined in physical education faculties/departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986), which measures burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, was the instrument used. Females, individuals 39 years or under, single subjects, coaches, and nontenured faculty/staff reported significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion than their counterparts. None of the demographic factors was significantly associated with depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Regression analyses indicated that three Stressors—quantitative overload, job scope, and time pressure-—explained the greatest amount of variance in emotional exhaustion; organization structure and human resource development contributed the most to depersonalization. None of the job Stressors contributed to the variance in personal accomplishment.

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Felecia Theune

Despite the tremendous growth in female sports participation opportunities under Title IX, black females have not benefited to the same degree as their white female counterparts. While gender complaints about female athletes still lagging behind males in participatory opportunities, scholarships, facilities and equipment are being discussed, larger structural inequities associated with being black and female remain absent from the Title IX conversation, demonstrating the dual invisibility of black females. Not only is this true at predominantly white institutions, it’s also true at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), academic institutions which have been sources of educational and athletic opportunities for black females long before the passage of Title IX prohibited sex discrimination in any federally funded educational programs and activities.

Malgré l’importante croissance d’opportunités de participation en sport féminin grâce à Title IX, les femmes noires n’ont pas bénéficié autant que les femmes blanches. Alors que les plaintes au sujet des femmes athlètes étaient encore à la traîne des hommes en ce qui concerne les opportunités de participation, les bourses, les installations et l’équipement font l’objet de discussions, les plus grandes injustices structurales associées au fait d’être noire et d’être une femme demeurent absentes de la conversation au sujet de Title IX, démontrant la double invisibilité des femmes noires. Non seulement estce vrai dans les établissements à prédominance blanche, cela est également vrai dans les collèges et universités historiquement noirs, des établissements scolaires qui ont été des sources d’opportunités éducationnelles et athlétiques bien avant que Title IX ne vienne interdire la discrimination en fonction du sexe dans tous les programmes et activités éducationnels financés par le gouvernement fédéral.

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Bruna Camilo Turi, Jamile S. Codogno, Romulo A. Fernandes, Xuemei Sui, Carl J. Lavie, Steven N. Blair and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system.

Methods:

963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis.

Results:

Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]).

Conclusions:

The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

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Megan B. Shreffler and Stephen D. Ross

Word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing has the potential to effectively contribute to revenue generation as sport organizations continue to create and implement marketing strategies to build and maintain relationships with consumers. While there has been a plethora of research on WOM marketing in the general business literature, the magnitude of the phenomenon must be examined separately in a sport setting because of the uniqueness of sport fans as consumers. This study examined the effect of the transference of personal experiences through WOM activity on brand associations, team identification, and the behavioral intentions of college basketball fans. Through a 4-stage data-collection approach in which both positive and negative messages were used, it was found that WOM activity has a significant impact on some of the measured constructs. The results of the study suggest that negative WOM has a greater impact on consumers than positive WOM, providing significant theoretical and managerial implications.