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Lee J. Moore, Samuel J. Vine, Mark R. Wilson, and Paul Freeman

Competitive situations often hinge on one pressurized moment. In these situations, individuals’ psychophysiological states determine performance, with a challenge state associated with better performance than a threat state. But what can be done if an individual experiences a threat state? This study examined one potential solution: arousal reappraisal. Fifty participants received either arousal reappraisal or control instructions before performing a pressurized, single-trial, motor task. Although both groups initially displayed cardiovascular responses consistent with a threat state, the reappraisal group displayed a cardiovascular response more reflective of a challenge state (relatively higher cardiac output and/or lower total peripheral resistance) after the reappraisal manipulation. Furthermore, despite performing similarly at baseline, the reappraisal group outperformed the control group during the pressurized task. The results demonstrate that encouraging individuals to interpret heightened physiological arousal as a tool that can help maximize performance can result in more adaptive cardiovascular responses and motor performance under pressure.

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke, and Tim Woodman

limited portion of daily activities for the majority of people. Making decisions and responses based on ever-changing stimuli in our environment occupies an arguably larger portion of day-to-day life ( Gorgulu, 2017 ). Moreover, time pressures inherent in reactive tasks likely present an additional load

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Katie E. Misener, Kathy Babiak, Gareth Jones, and Iain Lindsey

and offer guidance and direction for research in this area. Sport management scholars have highlighted the rising expectations for multisector integration between sport organizations and other partners stemming from numerous pressures including the need to seek innovative ways of mission delivery as

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John Goetschius, Mark A. Feger, Jay Hertel, and Joseph M. Hart

Balance and postural control relies on the integration of sensory input from visual, vestibular, and somatosensory components. Instrumented balance platforms that measure center of pressure (COP) excursions during static stance are commonly utilized to identify adaptations in balance and postural

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Daniel Krasinski, Ashley B. Thrasher, Michael G. Miller, and William R. Holcomb


A potential variable that could affect rate of temperature elevation with ultrasound is the pressure (mass) that is applied to the transducer head during application. Added pressure could compress the tissue, affecting density and the transmission of ultrasound energy. Little research has been completed to determine the effects of the amount of pressure applied during therapeutic ultrasound in vivo.


To determine the effects of different applied transducer mass on intramuscular temperature during an ultrasound treatment within the left triceps surae.


Crossover clinical trial.


Human performance research laboratory.


Convenience sample of thirteen healthy, college-age students.


Three separate MHz, 1.0-W/cm2 ultrasound treatments were administered 1.5 cm within the triceps surae. The independent variables were the linear temperature standards (0.5°C, 1.0°C, 1.5°C, and 2.0°C above baseline) and the 3 different applied pressures measured in grams (200 g, 600 g, and 800 g).

Main Outcome Measures:

A thermocouple probe was used to measure triceps surae temperature, and time to reach the temperature standards was recorded during the ultrasound treatments. A 4 × 3 repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) was used to analyze the differences for temperature points (0.5°C, 1.0°C, 1.5°C, and 2.0°C) and transducer mass (200 g, 600 g, and 800 g) and with respect to time.


The results of the RM-ANOVA showed no temperature-point and transducer-mass interaction (F 6,72 = 1.69, P = .137) or main effect for mass (F 2,24 = 1.23, P = .309). The time required to raise temperature 2°C was 209.1 ± 68.10 s at 200 g, 181.5 ± 61.50 s at 600 g, and 194.9 ± 75.54 s at 800 g.


Under the conditions of this study, the amount of mass applied with the transducer during an ultrasound treatment does not ultimately affect the rate of tissue heating.

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Stewart Cotterill

The ability to prepare effectively to execute complex skills under pressure is crucial in a number of performance-focused professions. While there is emerging evidence of best practice little research has sought to compare preparation strategies across professions. As a result, the aim of this research was to explore the approaches employed within a number of professions and whether there are similarities in the techniques and strategies adopted. Participants were 18 “performers,” purposefully selected from sporting, musical, performing arts, and medical domains. Participants were interviewed individually to gain an understanding of each participant’s preparation strategies and the functions these strategies fulfilled. The data were thematically analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results suggest that there are similarities in both behavioral and mental strategies adopted across professions. Future research should seek to explore the transferability of developmental approaches.

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Tangdi Lin, Ka-Chun Siu, Kathleen Volkman, and Jung Hung Chien

reduce the potential risks of tripping obstacles. One possible alternate common gait measure would be foot pressure distribution. For human walking, the maximum foot pressure distribution was much lower in older adults than in young ones ( Hessert et al., 2005 ), suggesting that this lower maximum foot

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Teri J. Hepler and Matt Andre

buzzer sound). Time pressure was also added to the CWT. Specifically, participants had only 2 s to provide a keystroke response and late responses resulted in aversive feedback (i.e., bright error screen and a loud buzzer). The difficulty of the mental serial subtraction task was also increased

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Susanne Fuchs, Guido Schuette, Hartmut Witte,, and Carsten Oliver Tibesku

A new design of total knee prosthesis without anterior patellar flange was developed to preserve the anatomical shape of the patellofemoral joint. The aim of the current study was to experimentally compare patellofemoral contact area and pressure in a nonreplaced knee, in a knee after implantation of a conventionally designed total knee arthroplasty, and in a knee after implantation of the newly designed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange. Six cadaveric legs were examined before and after implantation of either a conventional or a newly developed total knee arthroplasty, both without patellar replacement. The essential change in design is the absence of an anterior patellar flange. Contact area and pressure were measured using pressure sensitive films in 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion and the results were compared between the different prosthesis designs and with the nonreplaced knee. The prosthesis without patellar flange showed less average and maximum pressure than the conventional prosthesis. Compared with the nonreplaced knee, the conventional prosthesis led to increased average and maximum pressure and decreased contact area. In an experimental test setup, the newly developed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange showed reduced patello-femoral contact pressure in comparison with a total knee prosthesis with conventional patellofemoral design. This could possibly lead to a lower incidence of anterior knee complaints in patients.

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Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews, and Scott Fleming

This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.