Competitive situations often hinge on one pressurized moment. In these situations, individuals’ psychophysiological states determine performance, with a challenge state associated with better performance than a threat state. But what can be done if an individual experiences a threat state? This study examined one potential solution: arousal reappraisal. Fifty participants received either arousal reappraisal or control instructions before performing a pressurized, single-trial, motor task. Although both groups initially displayed cardiovascular responses consistent with a threat state, the reappraisal group displayed a cardiovascular response more reflective of a challenge state (relatively higher cardiac output and/or lower total peripheral resistance) after the reappraisal manipulation. Furthermore, despite performing similarly at baseline, the reappraisal group outperformed the control group during the pressurized task. The results demonstrate that encouraging individuals to interpret heightened physiological arousal as a tool that can help maximize performance can result in more adaptive cardiovascular responses and motor performance under pressure.
Lee J. Moore, Samuel J. Vine, Mark R. Wilson, and Paul Freeman
Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke, and Tim Woodman
limited portion of daily activities for the majority of people. Making decisions and responses based on ever-changing stimuli in our environment occupies an arguably larger portion of day-to-day life ( Gorgulu, 2017 ). Moreover, time pressures inherent in reactive tasks likely present an additional load
Matthew Jewiss, Oliver R. Runswick, and Iain Greenlees
In the last 2 decades, challenge and threat (C/T) states, defined as psychophysiological responses to self-relevant high-pressure situations ( Seery, 2011 ), have become one of the leading conceptualizations for examining performance under pressure. An individual who responds to a personally
Katie E. Misener, Kathy Babiak, Gareth Jones, and Iain Lindsey
and offer guidance and direction for research in this area. Sport management scholars have highlighted the rising expectations for multisector integration between sport organizations and other partners stemming from numerous pressures including the need to seek innovative ways of mission delivery as
John Goetschius, Mark A. Feger, Jay Hertel, and Joseph M. Hart
Balance and postural control relies on the integration of sensory input from visual, vestibular, and somatosensory components. Instrumented balance platforms that measure center of pressure (COP) excursions during static stance are commonly utilized to identify adaptations in balance and postural
Iván Chulvi-Medrano, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Moisés Picón-Martínez, and Nicholas Rolnick
improvement in functional neuromuscular performance is more evident in the elderly. 13 BFRT consists of the application of an external tourniquet on the most proximal part of the limbs in order to partially reduce blood flow. 1 , 12 , 14 Loenneke et al 15 reported that during BFRT, restriction pressure must
Daniel Krasinski, Ashley B. Thrasher, Michael G. Miller, and William R. Holcomb
A potential variable that could affect rate of temperature elevation with ultrasound is the pressure (mass) that is applied to the transducer head during application. Added pressure could compress the tissue, affecting density and the transmission of ultrasound energy. Little research has been completed to determine the effects of the amount of pressure applied during therapeutic ultrasound in vivo.
To determine the effects of different applied transducer mass on intramuscular temperature during an ultrasound treatment within the left triceps surae.
Crossover clinical trial.
Human performance research laboratory.
Convenience sample of thirteen healthy, college-age students.
Three separate MHz, 1.0-W/cm2 ultrasound treatments were administered 1.5 cm within the triceps surae. The independent variables were the linear temperature standards (0.5°C, 1.0°C, 1.5°C, and 2.0°C above baseline) and the 3 different applied pressures measured in grams (200 g, 600 g, and 800 g).
Main Outcome Measures:
A thermocouple probe was used to measure triceps surae temperature, and time to reach the temperature standards was recorded during the ultrasound treatments. A 4 × 3 repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) was used to analyze the differences for temperature points (0.5°C, 1.0°C, 1.5°C, and 2.0°C) and transducer mass (200 g, 600 g, and 800 g) and with respect to time.
The results of the RM-ANOVA showed no temperature-point and transducer-mass interaction (F 6,72 = 1.69, P = .137) or main effect for mass (F 2,24 = 1.23, P = .309). The time required to raise temperature 2°C was 209.1 ± 68.10 s at 200 g, 181.5 ± 61.50 s at 600 g, and 194.9 ± 75.54 s at 800 g.
Under the conditions of this study, the amount of mass applied with the transducer during an ultrasound treatment does not ultimately affect the rate of tissue heating.
The ability to prepare effectively to execute complex skills under pressure is crucial in a number of performance-focused professions. While there is emerging evidence of best practice little research has sought to compare preparation strategies across professions. As a result, the aim of this research was to explore the approaches employed within a number of professions and whether there are similarities in the techniques and strategies adopted. Participants were 18 “performers,” purposefully selected from sporting, musical, performing arts, and medical domains. Participants were interviewed individually to gain an understanding of each participant’s preparation strategies and the functions these strategies fulfilled. The data were thematically analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results suggest that there are similarities in both behavioral and mental strategies adopted across professions. Future research should seek to explore the transferability of developmental approaches.
Tangdi Lin, Ka-Chun Siu, Kathleen Volkman, and Jung Hung Chien
reduce the potential risks of tripping obstacles. One possible alternate common gait measure would be foot pressure distribution. For human walking, the maximum foot pressure distribution was much lower in older adults than in young ones ( Hessert et al., 2005 ), suggesting that this lower maximum foot
Teri J. Hepler and Matt Andre
buzzer sound). Time pressure was also added to the CWT. Specifically, participants had only 2 s to provide a keystroke response and late responses resulted in aversive feedback (i.e., bright error screen and a loud buzzer). The difficulty of the mental serial subtraction task was also increased