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Ivan Vrbik, Goran Sporiš, Lovro Štefan, Dejan Madić, Nebojša Trajković, Irena Valantine and Zoran Milanović

Purpose:

The number of familiarization sessions in fitness assessments seems to be critical and inconsistent. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to determine the number of familiarization attempts that stabilize the results in particular physical fitness tests. The secondary aim was to establish the test reliability through familiarization sessions.

Methods:

Thirty-nine primary school children participated in this research (age: 10.8 years, body mass: 40.6 ± 8.9 kg, and body height: 145.3 ± 7.2 cm). During six sessions, with one session every third day, participants performed the following tests to assess explosive strength (vertical jump and standing long jump), coordination (polygon backward and polygon with turn) and flexibility (toe touch).

Results:

The results of repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant increases (p < .05) in the polygon backward and polygon with turn performances from the first to third familiarization session. The standard error of measurement decreased as sessions progressed, indicating little within subject variation between the coordination test results following a familiarization period. Statistically significant differences were identified in the vertical jump test from the fourth test session compared with the first session. On the other hand, statistically significant differences for the standing long jump test were only found in the final session compared with the initial session. In the toe touch test, there were no significant increases from the first to the final familiarization session. All tests showed high a reliability coefficients, ranging from 0.979 to 0.991.

Conclusion:

Polygon backward and polygon with turn performance may be a practical, reliable method to assess coordination in primary school-aged children. However, completion of at least 3 practice sessions is suggested for participants to obtain a stable score. In addition, both jump tests are feasible for assessing skill-related fitness in young children, although the scientific reliability of the two tests should be questioned and the tests should be tailored to fit the age group of the children.

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan

structured physical activity, therefore positive, high-quality experiences of physical activity should be nurtured in primary schools ( Kirk, 2012 ). Such positive experiences are engendered by teachers delivering high-quality PE lessons ( Penney, Brooker, Hay, & Gillespie, 2009 ). High-quality PE can be

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Cecilia Hoi Sze Chan, Amy Sau Ching Ha and Johan Yau Yin Ng

, & Howlett, 2010a ; LeGear et al., 2012 ). Findings hold across age groups. A large proportion of primary school children were rated as non-proficient in most skills ( Foweather, 2010 ; Hume et al., 2008 ; van Beurden et al., 2003 ), while students arriving at secondary school were also found to not have

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Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey and Con Burns

old) spend approximately 4.5–5.5 hours (class and school dependent) in primary school throughout the academic year (a minimum of 40% of their waking day) ( Department of Education and Skills, 2017 ). The primary school setting offers an ideal opportunity for the development of FMS. In addition

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Melanie Vetter, Helen O’Connor, Nicholas O’Dwyer and Rhonda Orr

The health benefits of regular physical activity and maintaining physical fitness are widely established. 1 In primary school children, adequate, regular, and well-designed physical activity programs are also critical to the development of fundamental movement skills. 2 In recent years, there has

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Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic and Laura Basterfield

represented. The aim of our preliminary study therefore was to assess physical fitness levels in 8- to 10-year-old children from one primary school in North East England and compare these to International and European reference data, and other regions in England. Methods Participants and Study Design

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Anna E. Chalkley, Ash C. Routen, Jo P. Harris, Lorraine A. Cale, Trish Gorely and Lauren B. Sherar

. This is particularly important during the planning and early stages of delivery where the inclusion of pupils as active participants, rather than passive recipients, of a healthy lifestyle program has been found to be important in enhancing its long-term impact and sustainability in primary schools

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Guy Faulkner, Colin Reeves and Sue Chedzoy

The purpose of this study was to establish the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting nonspecialist, preservice primary-school teachers’ intentions to teach physical education for 2 hr per week. A questionnaire was developed, according to the recommended procedures, and was administered to 128 final-year teacher trainees in two Primary Teacher Training courses in England. A variety of predictors were identified, including beliefs of significant others, such as parents; a positive assessment of control over difficult barriers; and experiences of past (teaching) behavior. The most significant predictor in discriminating between intenders and nonintenders, however, was personal exercise behavior. Helping preservice primary-school teachers become more physically active themselves might positively influence their intent to teach physical education 2 hr per week more than alleviating barriers to teaching physical education.

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Guy Faulkner and Colin Reeves

The importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to exercise behavior has been acknowledged. However, the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to specific attitudes has been overlooked. This study used a self-report questionnaire to assess the physical self-perceptions and attitudes toward teaching physical education of a sample of final-year, female, primary school student teachers (N = 116). The most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education were recorded by students reporting more positive physical self-perceptions. Comparisons between students with low and high attitudes toward teaching physical education using MANOVA and discriminant function analysis confirmed these findings. Specifically, students with the most positive attitudes toward teaching physical education reported stronger self-perceptions of sports competence, and perceived competence in the sport subdomain was deemed more important than the other subdomains. It is speculated that these findings reflect a process of cognitive consonance mediating physical self-perceptions and attitudes.

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Suzanne Houwen, Esther Hartman, Laura Jonker and Chris Visscher

This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high (alpha = 0.71−0.72) and the interrater, intrarater, and test-retest reliability acceptable (ICCs ranging from 0.82 to 0.95). The results of the factor analysis supported internal test structure and significant age and sex effects were observed. Finally, the scores on the object control subtest of the TGMD-2 and the ball skills subtest of the Movement ABC correlated moderately to high (r = 0.45 to r = 0.80). Based on the current results, it is concluded that the TGMD-2 is an appropriate tool to assess the gross motor skills of primary-school-age children with VI.