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Ivan Vrbik, Goran Sporiš, Lovro Štefan, Dejan Madić, Nebojša Trajković, Irena Valantine, and Zoran Milanović


The number of familiarization sessions in fitness assessments seems to be critical and inconsistent. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to determine the number of familiarization attempts that stabilize the results in particular physical fitness tests. The secondary aim was to establish the test reliability through familiarization sessions.


Thirty-nine primary school children participated in this research (age: 10.8 years, body mass: 40.6 ± 8.9 kg, and body height: 145.3 ± 7.2 cm). During six sessions, with one session every third day, participants performed the following tests to assess explosive strength (vertical jump and standing long jump), coordination (polygon backward and polygon with turn) and flexibility (toe touch).


The results of repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant increases (p < .05) in the polygon backward and polygon with turn performances from the first to third familiarization session. The standard error of measurement decreased as sessions progressed, indicating little within subject variation between the coordination test results following a familiarization period. Statistically significant differences were identified in the vertical jump test from the fourth test session compared with the first session. On the other hand, statistically significant differences for the standing long jump test were only found in the final session compared with the initial session. In the toe touch test, there were no significant increases from the first to the final familiarization session. All tests showed high a reliability coefficients, ranging from 0.979 to 0.991.


Polygon backward and polygon with turn performance may be a practical, reliable method to assess coordination in primary school-aged children. However, completion of at least 3 practice sessions is suggested for participants to obtain a stable score. In addition, both jump tests are feasible for assessing skill-related fitness in young children, although the scientific reliability of the two tests should be questioned and the tests should be tailored to fit the age group of the children.

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Daniel M. Cooke, Craig B. Harrison, Sarah-Kate Millar, and Simon Walters

intervention studies have demonstrated that PE programs in primary school settings can significantly enhance children’s MSCs ( Logan et al., 2012 ; Morgan et al., 2013 ), particularly when high quality instruction is used with the intervention ( Morgan et al., 2013 ). A linear pedagogy (LP) approach ( Moy et

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones, and Richard J. Keegan

structured physical activity, therefore positive, high-quality experiences of physical activity should be nurtured in primary schools ( Kirk, 2012 ). Such positive experiences are engendered by teachers delivering high-quality PE lessons ( Penney, Brooker, Hay, & Gillespie, 2009 ). High-quality PE can be

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Andrew Sortwell, Daniel A. Marinho, Jorge Knijnik, and Ricardo Ferraz

performance, can be termed “resistance training movement activities.” Resistance training movement activities (RMTA) can be safe and beneficial in the primary school physical education (PE) curriculum to enhance motor skill competencies, physical fitness, and related psychosocial factors and to enhance

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Cecilia Hoi Sze Chan, Amy Sau Ching Ha, and Johan Yau Yin Ng

, & Howlett, 2010a ; LeGear et al., 2012 ). Findings hold across age groups. A large proportion of primary school children were rated as non-proficient in most skills ( Foweather, 2010 ; Hume et al., 2008 ; van Beurden et al., 2003 ), while students arriving at secondary school were also found to not have

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Markel Rico-González

school children. Therefore, the present article aimed to systematically summarize primary school-based intervention programs and their effects evaluated through RCT design. This study may be helpful for PE teachers to involve children in a healthy lifestyle based on scientific evidence. Method

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Inimfon A. Essiet, Elyse Warner, Natalie J. Lander, Jo Salmon, Michael J. Duncan, Emma L.J. Eyre, and Lisa M. Barnett

and accountability systems ( DinanThompson & Penney, 2015 ). One article that explored stakeholders’ perspectives of PL assessment reported that, although primary school teachers in the United Kingdom recognized the importance of implementing PL assessment, they lacked appropriate training, guidance

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Daniel M. Cooke, Craig B. Harrison, Sarah-Kate Millar, and Simon Walters

standards, and policies around the world reference the development of MSC in primary school physical education (PE; Dos Santos et al., 2016 ; Education Wales, 2008 ; New Zealand Ministry of Education, 2015 ; SHAPE America, 2015 ). In New Zealand primary schools, the implementation of PE is the

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Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey, and Con Burns

old) spend approximately 4.5–5.5 hours (class and school dependent) in primary school throughout the academic year (a minimum of 40% of their waking day) ( Department of Education and Skills, 2017 ). The primary school setting offers an ideal opportunity for the development of FMS. In addition

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James Scales, Jasmine Chavda, Erika Ikeda, Ivelina Tsocheva, Rosamund E. Dove, Helen E. Wood, Harpal Kalsi, Grainne Colligan, Lewis Griffiths, Bill Day, Cheryll Crichlow, Amanda Keighley, Monica Fletcher, Chris Newby, Florian Tomini, Fran Balkwill, Borislava Mihaylova, Jonathan Grigg, Sean Beevers, Sandra Eldridge, Aziz Sheikh, James Gauderman, Frank Kelly, Gurch Randhawa, Ian S. Mudway, Esther van Sluijs, and Christopher J. Griffiths

recall bias 10 and mood-congruence bias. 11 Few studies have reported on device-measured physical activity data during lockdowns. One study among Dutch primary school children used accelerometry data from 66 children (10.5 [3.6] y), reporting that sedentary time was increased by 45 minutes per day and