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Ian J. Dempsey, Grant E. Norte, Matthew Hall, John Goetschius, Lindsay V. Slater, Jourdan M. Cancienne, Brian C. Werner, David R. Diduch and Joseph M. Hart

characteristics of the surgical technique 6 and procedure 7 , 8 performed (eg, graft type, treated meniscus lesion) are reported to influence clinical outcomes, postoperative rehabilitation presents a modifiable factor for clinicians. The optimization of rehabilitation remains a critical barrier related to

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Brian D. Dauenhauer, Xiaofen D. Keating and Dolly Lambdin

related to the process. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore the DDDM process within the contexts of a school district that was awarded a PEP grant, with a specific emphasis on data sources and collection procedures. The primary research questions that guided the investigation were: In a

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John H. Challis

In three-dimensional image-based motion analysis, the direct linear transformation (DLT) is commonly used to measure locations of significant body landmarks. The major drawback of the DLT is that the control points used for calibration must encompass the volume in which the activity occurs. A new procedure is presented where the calibration frame is moved sequentially, permitting calibration of a volume much larger than that encompassed by the calibration frame. A calibration frame with a volume of 0.6 m3 was used to calibrate a volume six times greater, by placing the frame in eight different positions. Reconstruction accuracy was comparable with that for the original frame position. This new multiphase calibration procedure presents the opportunity for calibrating large volumes using a small calibration frame; this may be advantageous, for example, in sporting arenas, where the transportation or manufacture of a sufficiently large calibration frame may be problematic.

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

) was used for wrist flexion and extension strength and proprioception measurements. The device was calibrated per the manufacturer’s specifications and was verified prior to testing. Procedures Before initiating the assessments, the subjects’ name-surname, gender, birthdate, height, weight, and

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Michael R. McCarthy, Barton P. Buxton, W. Douglas B. Hiller, James R. Doyle and Denis Yamada

In an attempt to quantify the current standards in surgical procedures and rehabilitation protocols utilized to treat patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees, a 19-question survey was sent to members of the Hawaii Orthopedic Association. The findings indicated that only 54% (30/56) of the respondents were performing ACL reconstructions, of which 87% (26/30) were performing an intra-articular procedure and none were performing extra-articular procedures exclusively. The findings further indicate that 80% (24/30) of the 30 respondents performing ACL reconstructions were using an arthroscopically assisted, bone-tendon-bone autograft procedure. However, in marked contrast to the uniformity that existed concerning the surgical procedure, there was a drastic difference in the rehabilitation protocols and procedures that were recommended postoperatively. The most apparent differences in rehabilitation protocols existed in the utilization and initiation of open versus closed type kinetic chain exercises and activities.

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Frank E. Seagraves and Michael Horvat

The purpose of this investigation was to compare isometric test procedures (make vs. break tests by muscle groups) with elementary school girls, ages 9–11, using hand-held dynamometry. Fifty subjects in Grades 3 and 4 performed three trials on four muscle groups using each testing procedure following a preliminary session to allow familiarity with the instrumentation, test procedures, and test positions. Retest measurements were taken in 5–7 days with the order of the test procedures counterbalanced. Four 2 × 2 (Side × Test Condition) AM0VAs, with repeated measures on each-factor, were used to analyze the data. Significant Side × Test Condition interaction effects were evident for knee extension, elbow flexion, and shoulder abduction. Except for the knee extension, the break test produced higher values than the make test in all muscle groups, which is in agreement with previous investigations.

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Andrew D. White and Niall MacFarlane


The current study assessed the impact of full-game (FG) and time-on-pitch (TOP) procedures for global-positioning-system (GPS) analysis on the commonly used markers of physical performance in elite field hockey.


Sixteen international male field hockey players, age 19–30, were studied (yielding 73 player analyses over 8 games). Physical activity was recorded using a 5-Hz GPS.


Distance covered, player load, maximum velocity, high-acceleration efforts, and distance covered at specified speed zones were all agreeable for both analysis procedures (P > .05). However, percentage time spent in 0–6 km/h was higher for FG (ES: –21% to –16%; P < .001), whereas the percentage time in all other speed zones (1.67–3.06 m/s, 3.06–4.17 m/s, 4.17–5.28 m/s, and > 6.39 m/s) and relative distance (m/min) were higher for TOP (ES: 8–10%, 2–7%, 2–3%, 1–1%, 0–1%, respectively; P < .001).


These data demonstrate that GPS analysis procedures should be appropriate for the nature of the sport being studied. In field hockey, TOP and FG analysis procedures are comparable for distance-related variables but significantly different for time-dependent factors. Using inappropriate analysis procedures can alter the perceived physiological demand of elite field hockey because of “rolling” substitutions. Inaccurate perception of physiological demand could negatively influence training prescription (for both intensity and volume).

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John H. Challis

This article presents and evaluates a new procedure that automatically determines the cutoff frequency for the low-pass filtering of biomechanical data. The cutoff frequency was estimated by exploiting the properties of the autocorrelation function of white noise. The new procedure systematically varies the cutoff frequency of a Butterworth filter until the signal representing the difference between the filtered and unfiltered data is the best approximation to white noise as assessed using the autocorrelation function. The procedure was evaluated using signals generated from mathematical functions. Noise was added to these signals so mat they approximated signals arising from me analysis of human movement. The optimal cutoff frequency was computed by finding the cutoff frequency that gave me smallest difference between the estimated and true signal values. The new procedure produced similar cutoff frequencies and root mean square differences to me optimal values, for me zeroth, first and second derivatives of the signals. On the data sets investigated, this new procedure performed very similarly to the generalized cross-validated quintic spline.

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David A. Stewart, Gail M. Dummer and John L. Haubenstricker

Administration procedures reported in studies on the motor skills of deaf children and youth are reviewed. There was general consensus among these studies that modification of administration procedures is necessary. However, the effect of instructional modifications on the validity and reliability of motor skill tests was never addressed. Furthermore, there is a range of communication systems used in the education of the deaf that complicates administration procedures. Implications for future studies include a call for researchers to become more aware of the communication needs of their deaf subjects and a willingness to use experts familiar with the linguistic and communication needs of a particular group of deaf subjects to help design and administer motor skill tests.

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Veerle Van Mele, Yves Vanden Auweele and Randy Rzewnicki

Making diagnoses is essential if one is to provide a meaningful service to clients, in sport psychology or elsewhere. Discussion of this topic in the sport psychology literature is rare and is usually limited to the use of standardized questionnaires or unspecified interview techniques. A procedure for the diagnosis of an elite athlete is described and explained as a case study. Critical elements include (a) using an integrative diagnostic procedure where the results of one phase are used to guide the generation of further hypotheses and selection of diagnostic tools, (b) attending to an athlete’s strengths and deficiencies, (c) individualizing the procedure and materials and actively involving the athlete where appropriate, and (d) objectively examining interactions between the data at the individual level. Questionnaires, a grid, and a sequential analysis were integrated in phases to refine, confirm, contrast, and clarify points of action to optimize the athlete’s performance.