The Test of Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition (TGMD-3) is a process-oriented fundamental movement skill assessment to examine the movement patterns displayed by children between the ages of 3 and 10 years. Within this paper, results of a pilot study on the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance across gender of the TGMD-3 (German translation) are presented. In total, performances of 189 typically developing children (99 boys, 90 girls, 56 kindergarten children, 133 elementary school children, M age = 7.15 ± 2.02 years) are analyzed. Results provide preliminary evidence for test-retest, interrater and intrarater reliability, internal consistency, age- and gender- specific performance trends, factorial validity, measurement invariance across gender, divergent validity, and ball skill–related concurrent and predictive validity of the TGMD-3 (German translation). Subsequent research should be focused on a verification of the present findings on a representative database to foster the application of the TGMD-3 (German translation) in different settings.
Matthias O. Wagner, E. Kipling Webster, and Dale A. Ulrich
Ilaria Masci, Giuseppe Vannozzi, Nancy Getchell, and Aurelio Cappozzo
Assessing movement skills is a fundamental issue in motor development. Current process-oriented assessments, such as developmental sequences, are based on subjective judgments; if paired with quantitative assessments, a better understanding of movement performance and developmental change could be obtained. Our purpose was to examine the use of inertial sensors to evaluate developmental differences in hopping over distance. Forty children executed the task wearing the inertial sensor and relevant time durations and 3D accelerations were obtained. Subjects were also categorized in different developmental levels according to the hopping developmental sequence. Results indicated that some time and kinematic parameters changed with some developmental levels, possibly as a function of anthropometry and previous motor experience. We concluded that, since inertial sensors were suitable in describing hopping performance and sensitive to developmental changes, this technology is promising as an in-field and user-independent motor development assessment tool.
Samuel W. Logan, E. Kipling Webster, Nancy Getchell, Karin A. Pfeiffer, and Leah E. Robinson
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence of the relationship between fundamental motor skills (FMS) competence and physical activity by qualitatively describing results from 13 studies that met rigorous inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: (a) published in a peer-review journal, (b) participants were between the ages of 3–18, (c) participants were typically developing, (d) FMS was measured by a process-oriented assessment, (e) assessed physical activity, (f) related FMS and physical activity through statistical procedures, and (g) printed in English. Databases were searched for relevant articles using key terms related to FMS and physical activity. Evidence suggested low to moderate relationships between FMS competence and physical activity in early childhood (r = .16 to .48; R 2 = 3–23%, 4 studies), low to high relationships in middle to late childhood (r = .24 to .55; R 2 = 6–30%, 7 studies), and low to moderate relationships in adolescence (r = .14 to .35; R 2 = 2–12.3%, 2 studies). Across ages, object control skills and locomotor skills were more strongly related to physical activity for boys and girls, respectively. Future research should emphasize experimental and longitudinal research designs to provide further understanding of the relationship between FMS competence and physical activity.
Xiangli Gu, Katherine Thomas Thomas, and Yu-Lin Chen
Guided by Stodden et al.’s (2008) conceptual model, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations among perceived competence, actual motor competence (MC), physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness in elementary children. The group differences were also investigated as a function of MC levels.
A correlational research design was used in this study. There were 262 children (Mage = 10.87, SD = .77) recruited from three schools in the southern U.S. Students’ MC was objectively measured based on a process-oriented assessment (PE Metrics, NASPE, 2010). Students self-reported perceived competence and leisure-time PA. Then, the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and pedometers were used to measure students’ cardiorespiratory fitness and in-class PA, respectively.
The structural equation modeling analysis supported the significant indirect effect of the MC on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA through perceived competence. The MANCOVA yielded a significant main effect for MC groups after controlling for sex [Wilks’s Lambda = .838, F = 12.15 (4, 251), p < .001, η2 = .16]. Regardless of sex, children with low MC demonstrated lower perceived competence, PA, and cardiorespiratory fitness compared with children with higher MC (p < .001).
Development of students’ competence beliefs in PE and certain movement patterns should be emphasized, especially during middle childhood. High quality PE programs must be aligned with national standards, with particular attention to enhancing skill acquisition (standard 1) and PE-motivation (i.e., perceived competence; standard 5).
Larissa True, Ali Brian, Jackie Goodway, and David Stodden
Motor competence is associated with psychological and physical health outcomes. A reciprocal relationship between motor competence and perceptions of physical competence exists, but the developmental trajectory of the motor competence/perceived competence relationship is not well understood. Standardized assessments take a product- or process-oriented approach, but research concerning the motor competence/perceived competence relationship is limited to using process-oriented assessments. It is unknown whether boys and girls use product and process information differentially in the development of perceived competence. Children (N = 411) were aggregated into age groups. Perceived competence and product and process aspects of motor competence were assessed. Older children were more skillful than younger children but reported lower perceived competence. The motor competence/perceived competence association increased for both motor competence measures across age groups. Girls demonstrated stronger associations between process measures of motor competence and perceived competence, while boys indicated stronger associations between product measures of motor competence and perceived competence. When both motor competence measures were used to predict perceived competence, more variance in perceived competence was explained, compared with using independent predictors. The strength of the prediction increased across age groups, indicating that motor competence is a stronger predictor of perceived competence in older children.
Haixia Guo, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Marsha Dowda, and Russell R. Pate
-oriented assessments ( 10 ). The latter focuses on performance outcomes (eg, the number of times a child dribbled a ball) and provides important quantitative information about the status of the child’s MSs ( 38 ). Process-oriented assessments, however, allow for comprehensive accounts of the form and quality of
Ali Brian, Farid Bardid, Lisa M. Barnett, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir, and Jacqueline D. Goodway
, Samaey, & Andries, 2009 ). These motor competence tests include process-oriented and/or product-oriented measures. Process-oriented assessments focus on the quality of movement (e.g., contralateral step during throw) while product-oriented assessments focus on quantitative measures (e.g., ball speed
Sally Taunton Miedema, Ali Brian, Adam Pennell, Lauren Lieberman, Larissa True, Collin Webster, and David Stodden
intervention. These effects may be due to the BOT2-BF being a product-oriented assessment as opposed to a process-oriented assessment. In fact, it is suggested that an extended period of practice or intervention time is required to change the product of a child’s motor skill competency or proficiency over the
Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian, and David Stodden
the standing long jump, kick, throw, and hop. Finally, Spearman’s Rho correlations were calculated to compare performances between STS time and the MC process-oriented assessment data (i.e., developmental sequences) of standing long jump, throw, and hop. Results The percentage of trials classified
Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey, and Con Burns
collection of anthropometric measurements. The TGMD-2 was used to assess FMS competence. 26 This process-oriented assessment tool has been found to be valid and reliable for use among 3- to 10-year-old children. 26 The TGMD-2 consists of 12 FMS: 6 locomotor skills (run, gallop, slide, leap, hop, and