The purpose of this study was to examine three frameworks, (a) process-product, (b) student mediation, and (c) classroom ecology, to understand physical activity (PA) behavior of adolescents with and without disabilities in middle school inclusive physical education (PE). A total of 13 physical educators teaching inclusive PE and their 503 students, including 22 students with different disabilities, participated in this study. A series of multilevel regression analyses indicated that physical educators’ teaching behavior and students’ implementation intentions play important roles in promoting the students’ PA in middle school inclusive PE settings when gender, disability, lesson content, instructional model, and class location are considered simultaneously. The findings suggest that the ecological framework should be considered to effectively promote PA of adolescents with and without disabilities in middle school PE classes.
Lynn Dale Housner
Jo E. Cowden and Carol C. Torrey
The ROADMAP (Role of Assessment Directed Movements, Actions, and Patterns) Model is presented, providing a plan of action for the adapted motor developmentalist (AMD) to assess the motor actions of young children. The emerging specialty area of the AMD requires new areas of proficiency, which are described in the ROADMAP Model. The model defines and describes inputs, processes, products, outputs, and outcomes as they relate to the process of assessment. The role of the adapted motor developmentalist as a key member in the inter- or transdisciplinary assessment process is discussed. Additionally, selected motor assessment instruments are suggested for use by the AMD.
Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesca Racioppi, Nick Cavill, Harry Rutter and Pekka Oja
There is growing interest in “Health in All Policies” approaches, aiming at promoting health through policies which are under the control of nonhealth sectors. While economic appraisal is an established practice in transport planning, health effects are rarely taken into account. An international project was carried out to develop guidance and tools for practitioners for quantifying the health effects of cycling and walking, supporting their full appraisal.
A systematic review of existing approaches was carried out. Then, the products were developed with an international expert panel through an extensive consensus finding process.
Products and Applications:
Methodological guidance was developed which addresses the main challenges practitioners encounter in the quantification of health effects from cycling and walking. A “Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for cycling” was developed which is being used in several countries.
There is a need for a more consistent approach to the quantification of health benefits from cycling and walking. This project is providing guidance and an illustrative tool for cycling for practical application. Results show that substantial savings can be expected. Such tools illustrate the importance of considering health in transport policy and infrastructure planning, putting “Health in All Policies” into practice.
Risto Marttinen, Dillon Landi, Dario Novak and Stephen Silverman
for School Country of Origin N for Focus Group Methodology Used Qualitative Generic, Phenomenological, Ethnographic, Grounded theory Critical? Action Research? Case Study? Quantitative Mixed Research Focus Effectiveness Description Correlational/Process-Product Context, Presage
Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman and Michelle A. Grenier
learning profile of each. In addition, Tomlinson ( 2000 ) defined DI as the efforts of teachers to respond to variance among learners in the classroom to create the best learning experience possible. Teachers can manipulate at least four classroom elements: content, process, products, and learning
Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze
policies in the United States is state policy innovativeness. Innovativeness is defined as openness to “the generation, acceptance, and implementation of new ideas, processes, products, or services” ( Thompson, 1965 , p. 36). Walker ( 1969 ) developed an index of state policy innovativeness by analyzing
Anna Gerke and Yan Dalla Pria
notably during boat-building projects. These are long and complex projects and require the involvement of several different cluster members. Organizations leverage their complementarity and therewith optimize the production processes. Product cycle and work organization Contracts and customer orders in