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Duane Knudson and Melissa Bopp

, but cautioned that a lack of proctoring of the BCI posttest could have influenced the finding. This evidence from biomechanics and physics SoTL indicated that both high-tech and low-tech active learning experiences implemented in hybrid and online formats in biomechanics courses improve student

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Steven L. Proctor and Candace Boan-Lenzo

This study examined the athletic status differences in reported depressive symptoms between male intercollegiate team sport athletes (n= 66) and male nonathletes (n = 51) enrolled at one of two public universities in the Southeastern United States, while controlling for preferred (task-oriented and emotion-oriented) coping strategies. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the athletes reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms than nonathletes while controlling for coping strategy selection (p< .05). In terms of the actual prevalence rates of depressive symptoms, 29.4% of the nonathletes met the criterion for possible depression compared with only 15.6% of the athletes. Overall, athletic participation in an intercollegiate team sport appears related to lower levels of depression. The potentially distress-buffering aspects of athletic involvement and implications for future research are discussed.

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Joaquin U. Gonzales, Dustin M. Grinnell, Martha J. Kalasky, and David N. Proctor

The authors examined interindividual and sex-specific variation in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses to graded leg-extension exercise in healthy older (60–78 yr) women (n = 21) and men (n = 19). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, physical activity (accelerometry), and vascular function were measured to identify predictors of exercise BP. Neither VO2max nor activity counts were associated with the rise in SBP or DBP during exercise in men. The strongest predictors of these responses in men were age (SBP: r 2 = .19, p = .05) and peak exercise leg vasodilation (DBP: r 2 = –.21, p < .05). In women, the modest relationship observed between VO2max and exercise BP was abolished after adjusting for central adiposity and activity counts (best predictors, cumulative r 2 = .53, p < .05, for both SBP and DBP). These results suggest that determinants of variation in submaximal exercise BP responses among older adults are sex specific, with daily physical activity influencing these responses in women but not men.

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Tim Woodman, Paul A. Davis, Lew Hardy, Nichola Callow, Ian Glasscock, and Jason Yuill-Proctor

We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts’ peak force increased more than introverts’. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus’s framework.

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Matthew T. Mahar, Tyler R. Hall, Michael D. Delp, and James R. Morrow Jr.

Administrators of kinesiology departments (N = 101) completed a survey that requested information about online education, funding for online courses, and administrator perceptions of the rigor and future of online courses. More master's (n = 18) than undergraduate degree (n = 9) programs were totally online. Forty-nine percent of institutions provide funding to faculty and 37% provide funding to departments for online offerings. Respondents indicated concern about the rigor of online courses. Sixty-one percent indicated that academic rigor is a concern of faculty, 42% did not feel that totally online courses were as rigorous as face-to-face classes, and 65% indicated tests for online courses are not proctored. Despite concerns, 76% indicated they expect to have some or many online courses in the next 5-10 years. Few respondents indicated they expected to have no online courses or almost totally online delivery of courses. Online delivery of instruction is impacting kinesiology, and expansion of online education is likely.

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Melinda A. Solmon

can cite two instances at my own institution that demonstrate this phenomenon. One instructor assigned a graduate student, who was not a teaching assistant in the class and did not know the students, to proctor a final examination. In the process of finishing up the examinations and turning in their

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Luca Pollonini, Lauren Gulley Cox, and Stacey L. Gorniak

also been found in postmenopausal females compared with males (both without DM), indicating a baseline difference in muscle blood flow due to sex ( Parker et al., 2007; Parker, Smithmyer, Pelberg, Mishkin, & Proctor, 2008 ; Proctor, Koch, Newcomer, Le, & Leuenberger, 2003 ). There is some evidence

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Breanna Drew and James Matthews

been a small number of studies examining the symptoms of mental ill-health in student-athletes ( Armstrong & Oomen-Early, 2009 ; Li, Moreland, Peek-Asa, & Yang, 2017 ; Proctor & Boan-Lenzo, 2010 ; Storch, Storch, Killiany, & Roberti, 2005 ; Wolanin, Hong, Marks, Panchoo, & Gross, 2016 ; Yang et

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Carena Winters

, Duffey, Ganim, & Proctor, 2015 ; McEachern, Jackson, Yungblut, & Tomasone, 2019 ; Melton, Williamson, Bland, & Zhang, 2016 ; Wilson, Bhuiyan, Papalia, & Bopp, 2018 ). In fall of 2019, the EIM-OC Committee began a systematic review and analysis of the literature that remains underway. In early 2020

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Miriam E. Leary, Randy W. Bryner, and Oladipo O. Eddo

& Cotarlan), primarily due to the significant increase in online courses. Remote proctoring using web cameras is a potential solution, but it is associated with increased test anxiety (Lancaster & Cotarlan). The combination of requiring remote proctoring and browser lockdown might be effective for securing