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Measuring Learning and Promoting Academic Integrity in Online Instruction

Duane Knudson and Melissa Bopp

, but cautioned that a lack of proctoring of the BCI posttest could have influenced the finding. This evidence from biomechanics and physics SoTL indicated that both high-tech and low-tech active learning experiences implemented in hybrid and online formats in biomechanics courses improve student

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Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms in Male Intercollegiate Student-Athletes and Nonathletes

Steven L. Proctor and Candace Boan-Lenzo

This study examined the athletic status differences in reported depressive symptoms between male intercollegiate team sport athletes (n= 66) and male nonathletes (n = 51) enrolled at one of two public universities in the Southeastern United States, while controlling for preferred (task-oriented and emotion-oriented) coping strategies. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the athletes reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms than nonathletes while controlling for coping strategy selection (p< .05). In terms of the actual prevalence rates of depressive symptoms, 29.4% of the nonathletes met the criterion for possible depression compared with only 15.6% of the athletes. Overall, athletic participation in an intercollegiate team sport appears related to lower levels of depression. The potentially distress-buffering aspects of athletic involvement and implications for future research are discussed.

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Sex-Dependent Associations Between Daily Physical Activity and Leg Exercise Blood Pressure Responses

Joaquin U. Gonzales, Dustin M. Grinnell, Martha J. Kalasky, and David N. Proctor

The authors examined interindividual and sex-specific variation in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses to graded leg-extension exercise in healthy older (60–78 yr) women (n = 21) and men (n = 19). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, physical activity (accelerometry), and vascular function were measured to identify predictors of exercise BP. Neither VO2max nor activity counts were associated with the rise in SBP or DBP during exercise in men. The strongest predictors of these responses in men were age (SBP: r 2 = .19, p = .05) and peak exercise leg vasodilation (DBP: r 2 = –.21, p < .05). In women, the modest relationship observed between VO2max and exercise BP was abolished after adjusting for central adiposity and activity counts (best predictors, cumulative r 2 = .53, p < .05, for both SBP and DBP). These results suggest that determinants of variation in submaximal exercise BP responses among older adults are sex specific, with daily physical activity influencing these responses in women but not men.

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Emotions and Sport Performance: An Exploration of Happiness, Hope, and Anger

Tim Woodman, Paul A. Davis, Lew Hardy, Nichola Callow, Ian Glasscock, and Jason Yuill-Proctor

We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts’ peak force increased more than introverts’. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus’s framework.

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The State of Online Education in Kinesiology in the United States

Matthew T. Mahar, Tyler R. Hall, Michael D. Delp, and James R. Morrow Jr.

Administrators of kinesiology departments (N = 101) completed a survey that requested information about online education, funding for online courses, and administrator perceptions of the rigor and future of online courses. More master's (n = 18) than undergraduate degree (n = 9) programs were totally online. Forty-nine percent of institutions provide funding to faculty and 37% provide funding to departments for online offerings. Respondents indicated concern about the rigor of online courses. Sixty-one percent indicated that academic rigor is a concern of faculty, 42% did not feel that totally online courses were as rigorous as face-to-face classes, and 65% indicated tests for online courses are not proctored. Despite concerns, 76% indicated they expect to have some or many online courses in the next 5-10 years. Few respondents indicated they expected to have no online courses or almost totally online delivery of courses. Online delivery of instruction is impacting kinesiology, and expansion of online education is likely.

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Stimulus–Response Compatibility During Fighting Task Simulation: Influences of the Opponent’s Spatial Codes on the Accuracy and Response Time

Andreza Abreus de Moura, Leonardo José Mataruna-Dos-Santos, and Erick Francisco Quintas Conde

characterized by faster and more accurate responses in the condition with spatial correspondence between the location of the target stimulus and the location of the response key ( Proctor & Vu, 2006 ; Shi & Wang, 2022 ). Therefore, faster responses to sensory stimuli presented on the right side are observed

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Promoting Academic Integrity in the Context of 21st Century Technology

Melinda A. Solmon

can cite two instances at my own institution that demonstrate this phenomenon. One instructor assigned a graduate student, who was not a teaching assistant in the class and did not know the students, to proctor a final examination. In the process of finishing up the examinations and turning in their

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An Overview of Dissemination and Implementation Science in Physical Activity and Health Promotion

Paul Andrew Estabrooks

Definitions Used in Dissemination and Implementation Research Term Definition Acceptability The perception among implementation stakeholders that a given treatment, service, practice, or innovation is agreeable, palatable, or satisfactory ( Proctor et al., 2011 ). Adaptation Intended or unintended changes to

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Hemodynamic Function of Forearm Muscle in Postmenopausal Women With Type 2 Diabetes

Luca Pollonini, Lauren Gulley Cox, and Stacey L. Gorniak

also been found in postmenopausal females compared with males (both without DM), indicating a baseline difference in muscle blood flow due to sex ( Parker et al., 2007; Parker, Smithmyer, Pelberg, Mishkin, & Proctor, 2008 ; Proctor, Koch, Newcomer, Le, & Leuenberger, 2003 ). There is some evidence

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The Prevalence of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Student-Athletes and the Relationship With Resilience and Help-Seeking Behavior

Breanna Drew and James Matthews

been a small number of studies examining the symptoms of mental ill-health in student-athletes ( Armstrong & Oomen-Early, 2009 ; Li, Moreland, Peek-Asa, & Yang, 2017 ; Proctor & Boan-Lenzo, 2010 ; Storch, Storch, Killiany, & Roberti, 2005 ; Wolanin, Hong, Marks, Panchoo, & Gross, 2016 ; Yang et