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Jeffrey Martin

profession do not mention job scarcity, or it appears as an afterthought, it is understandable that such articles, and the unintended consequence of what they imply (i.e., a healthy profession), drown out the few articles focused on the reality of the state of affairs (e.g.,  Andersen et al., 1997 ). It

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Stacy Winter and David J. Collins

Although the field of applied sport psychology has developed, it faces further challenges on its way toward gaining greater professional status. The following principal criteria of professionalism are proposed as a test of such status: (a) provides an important public service, (b) has a knowledge-base underpinning, (c) has organizational regulation, (d) has a distinct ethical dimension, and (e) has professional autonomy. This article undertakes to explore the nature of implications for practice and the extent to which the suggested principal criteria justify a distinctive applied sport psychology profession. In doing so, we hope to stimulate debate on these and other issues in order that an even greater professionalization of our applied discipline may emerge.

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Ahmed Al-Emadi, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Donna Pastore, Abdellatif Sellami and Abdulaye Diop

Coaching is considered a challenging profession and has been studied from a variety of perspectives. For example, studies have been completed on topics such as reasons to select and leave the profession ( Kamphoff & Gill, 2008 ; Pastore, Inglis, Danylchuk, 1996 ), coaching effectiveness ( Horn

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Bettina Callary, Diane Culver, Penny Werthner and John Bales

High quality education programs across the globe could help coaching move forward as a profession. Although there have been suggestions to improve sports coaching education programs by integrating theory and practice through alternative learning approaches such as mentoring and critical refection (Armour, 2010; Cushion, Armour, & Jones, 2003), it is unclear whether such approaches have been implemented in coach education programs and how different countries are educating their coaches. The purpose of this paper is to describe how seven high performance coach education programs are educating coaches and to what extent they are employing alternative learning approaches. The goals, curricula, and pedagogical approaches are described and implications for the professionalization of coaching are discussed.

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Patricia Vertinsky

In this paper I view the history of kinesiology in America through the lens of a shifting academic landscape where physical culture and building acted upon each other to reflect emergent views concerning the nature of training in physical education and scientific developments around human movement. It is also an organizational history that has been largely lived in the gymnasium and the laboratory from its inception in the late nineteenth century to its current arrangements in the academy. Historians have referred to this in appropriately embodied terms as the head and the heart of physical education, and of course the impact of gender, class, and race was ever present. I conclude that the profession/discipline conundrum in kinesiology that has ebbed and flowed in the shifting spaces and carefully organized places of the academy has not gone away in the twenty-first century and that the complexities of today’s training require more fertile and flexible collaborative approaches in research, teaching, and professional training.

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Hal A. Lawson

Specialized, theoretical knowledge is important to professions such as physical education as they attempt to gain and later maintain their status and control over the labor market. This knowledge must be monopolized and used in work by the profession’s members if they are to be granted this status and control by society’s members. Upon examination physical educationists do not enjoy a knowledge monopoly, nor do they appear to use their specialized, theoretical knowledge in work. Chief among the explanations offered are the limitations in the positivist conception of knowledge for the professions and the different frames of reference for researchers and practitioners. Analyses of the monopoly and use of knowledge in professions such as physical education yield insights about the ways in which knowledge is articulated and contested, the internal and external relationships of the profession, and the relationship among the structure of knowledge, the professions, and social theory.

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Matea Wasend and Nicole M. LaVoi

Sport Coaching The research is clear: women are vastly underrepresented in sport coaching profession across sports, levels, and positions. While over 90% of US collegiate women’s teams were coached by women in 1972, that percentage declined steadily even as Title IX prompted an increase in opportunities

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Donna L. Pastore

During the past two decades the number of female athletes has increased while the number of female coaches has declined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons why NCAA Division I male and female coaches of women’s athletic teams enter and leave the profession. The findings indicate that coaches enter the profession to remain in competitive athletics and would leave the profession to spend more time with family and friends. Further research in this area is recommended to determine solutions to the problem of the declining number of female coaches.

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George B. Cunningham, Michael Sagas, Marlene Dixon, Aubrey Kent and Brian A. Turner

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of internships on students’ career-related affect and intentions. Data were gathered from 138 upper-level undergraduate sport management students (71 interns, 67 noninterns). A doubly multivariate repeated measures model indicated that, although they did not differ at the beginning of the internship, interns had less positive attitudes toward the profession than did noninterns at the end of the internship. Structural equation modeling indicated that affective occupational commitment fully mediated the relationship between anticipated career satisfaction and intentions to enter the profession. The results contribute to the extant literature by demonstrating that internships can influence career-related affect and intentions.

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Dominic Malcolm, Claudia Pinheiro and Nuno Pimenta

This paper provides sociological reflections on the professionalization of sport coaching and the attempts of sport coaches to attain such a status. It explicates existing sociological analyses of the professions, highlighting and critiquing the so-called “trait” approach which currently dominates discussions of the professionalization of sport coaching. It subsequently suggests that the “power approach” to professions, as epitomized by the work of Johnson, Larson and Abbott, provides a more realistic depiction of professionalization, alerting us to the conflictual and exclusionary aspects endemic in such a process. Finally the paper explores some twenty-first century trends towards the declining influence and social power of professional groups, and the specific characteristics and social standing of sport coaching which will serve to constrain sport coaches from achieving the goal of professional status. This analysis leads us to question whether professionalization should be viewed as an inherently “positive” development, and whether professionalization is a realistic goal for an occupational group such as sport coaching.