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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

Different studies 1 – 7 have informed us of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of professional cyclists. Successful riders are characterized by high oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) (70–85 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) 1 – 6 and power output, between 400 W to 550 W (ie, 6.0–7.5 W·kg −1 ) during ramp

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster

, the assessment of these variables involves the use of sophisticated equipment (eg, metabolic gas analysis systems, blood lactate analyzers) administered by specialized personnel, which limits their use and increases cost. Even professional cyclists only perform 2 to 3 tests over their season. 2 , 5

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Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke

professional cyclists typically manage to achieve adequate EA during these races as a result of a good understanding of the physiological and energy requirements of racing; sophisticated nutrition support, including the involvement of mobile kitchens and professional chefs; and aggressive feeding, while riding

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Dajo Sanders, Mathieu Heijboer, Ibrahim Akubat, Kenneth Meijer and Matthijs K. Hesselink


To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists.


Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model.


The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model.


This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

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Alfredo Córdova, Antoni Sureda, María L. Albina, Victoria Linares, Montse Bellés and Domènec J. Sánchez

The aim was to determine the levels and activities of the oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine after a flat cyclist stage. Eight voluntary male professional trained-cyclists participated in the study. Exercise significantly increased erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet, and reticulocyte counts. The exercise induced significant increases in the erythrocyte activities of catalase (19.8%) and glutathione reductase (19.2%), while glutathione peroxidase activity decreased significantly (29.3%). Erythrocyte GSSG concentration was significantly increased after exercise (21.4%), whereas GSH was significantly diminished (20.4%). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels evidenced a significant decrease 3 h after finishing the stage (44.3%). Plasma malondialdehyde, GSH and GSSG levels significantly decreased after 3 hr recovery (26.8%, 48.6%, and 31.1%, respectively). The exercise significantly increased the F2-isoprostane concentration in urine from 359 ± 71 pg/mg creatinine to 686 ± 139 pg/mg creatinine. In conclusion, a flat cycling stage induced changes in oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine of professional cyclists. Urine F2-isoprostane is a more useful biomarker for assessing the effects of acute exercise than the traditional malondialdehyde measurement.

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Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts and Romain Meeusen

, and low in effort, 7 and it has been shown that it can detect changes in training load and reflect fatigue. 8 – 10 However, those studies were conducted with trained cyclists in a laboratory, not in elite professional cyclists in the “real-world” situation of a training camp. NFO is not only

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Robert P. Lamberts, Theresa N.C. Mann, Gerard J. Rietjens and Hendrik H. Tijdink

Iliac blood-flow restrictions causing painful and “powerless” legs are often attributed to overtraining and may develop for some time before being correctly diagnosed. In the current study, differences between actual performance parameters and performance parameters predicted from the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT) were studied in a world-class cyclist with bilateral kinking of the external iliac artery before and after surgery. Two performance-testing sessions, including a peak-poweroutput (PPO) test and a 40-km time trial (TT) were conducted before surgery, while 1 testing session was conducted after the surgery. Actual vs LSCT-predicted performance parameters in the world-class cyclists were compared with 82 symptom-free trained to elite male cyclists. No differences were found between actual and LSCT-predicted PPO before and after surgical intervention. However, there were differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time in the tests performed before the surgery (2:51and 2:55 min:s, respectively). These differences were no longer apparent in the postsurgery 40-km TT (2 s). This finding suggests that iliac blood-flow restrictions seem to mainly impair endurance performance rather than peak cycling performance. A standard PPO test without brachial ankle blood-pressure measurements might not be able to reflect iliac bloodflow restrictions. Differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time may assist in earlier referral to a cardiovascular specialist and result in earlier detection of iliac blood-flow restrictions.

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Teun van Erp, Dajo Sanders and Jos J. de Koning

interchangeably between women and men professional cyclists. However, limited research is available describing the training characteristics of male professional cycling, 9 – 11 and to the best of our knowledge, there is no research providing a detailed quantification of the training demands of female

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Dajo Sanders, Teun van Erp and Jos J. de Koning

There are road cycling competitions all around the world across a broad spectrum that ranges from youth and junior competitions to elite professional competitions. A male World Tour professional cyclist will cycle around 25,000 to 35,000 km in training and competition each year, including up to 100

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Teun van Erp, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

reconnaissance and, therefore, may be longer than the actual race or TT. All data sets were visually checked and incomplete data sets were excluded. Subjects Twenty-one highly trained professional cyclists participated in this study. During the 4 years of analysis, the cyclists won, more than 100 UCI races