The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogy of facilitation within physical education professional development (PD). Specific research questions were: 1) What were the self-identified pedagogical strategies employed by facilitators in PD?, and 2) From the perspective of the participants, what strategies contributed to their growth as learners? Participants included fifteen PD facilitators and 88 teachers from eight selected professional learning communities in the U.S. and Europe. Data sources included interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three participant-centered pedagogical strategies reflected facilitators’ methods and teachers’ perceptions: (a) learning as doing: providing structure without dictating, (b) learning as trying: creating and testing new ideas, and (c) learning as sharing: public presentation of work. By teaching without telling, purposeful facilitator actions contributed to the development of an environment that encouraged teachers to become active participants in the creation of knowledge and development of professional capital.
Kevin Patton, Melissa Parker and Erica Pratt
Robert Daniel Michael, Collin Webster, Debra Patterson, Patricia Laguna and Clay Sherman
This study examined California middle school physical education teachers’ (grades 6–8) use of assessments based on state standards to grade their students.
An electronic survey was used to collect data.
Of the 309 teachers surveyed, 74% based their assessments on the state physical education standards. Teachers who used standards-based assessments were more prone to assigning higher percentages of students’ grades to achievement-based assessments (e.g., skills testing, fitness, standards competency) than teachers who did not use standards-based assessments. However, all teachers gave similar weightings to administrative-based assessments (e.g., dressing out appropriately). Most of the teachers (91.2%) who reported not using standards-based assessments had limited to no professional development pertaining to the standards and perceived this as the biggest challenge to using standards-based assessments.
This study shows that professional development may be an important factor in teachers’ use of standards-based assessments and achievement-focused grading in middle school physical education.
Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan
implementation can be mitigated via effective professional development programs ( Hunzicker, 2011 ). Professional Development Programs In teaching and education, professional development programs provide feasible opportunities for teachers to develop and refine high-quality teaching practice in an ever
Hayley Morrison and Doug Gleddie
assume that professional development (PD)—a provision method used to mitigate challenges that practitioners 1 face in their teaching and assist their understanding about specific processes, concepts, or subject matter ( Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995 )—would be provided to practitioners instructing
Rachael Bertram and Wade Gilbert
Continuing professional development (CPD) for sport coaches has been defined as all kinds of professional learning that occurs after initial certification (Nelson et al., 2006), and includes both non-formal and informal learning situations. Despite the fact that within the past decade there has been an increasing number of studies on these learning situations, learning communities as a type of CPD have received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to share initial observations and lessons learned from creating and implementing sport coach learning communities. In addition, this paper extends the dialogue on learning community implementation and assessment. Our learning community efforts were formulated around five key guidelines: (1) Stable settings dedicated to improving instruction and learning, (2) Job-alike teams, (3) Published protocols that guide but do not prescribe, (4) Trained peer facilitators, and (5) Working on student learning goals until there are tangible gains in student learning.
Charlotte Woodcock, Hugh Richards and Angus Mugford
The aim of the study was to examine and reflect on the learning experiences of a neophyte sport psychologist. Over a 9-week applied internship the first author kept a reflective diary that followed Boud’s (2001) three elements of journal writing. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003) of the data identified 11 themes from the diary, 8 of which were contextualized in 3 self-narrative accounts, including the working environment, anxiety, confidence, being a performer, being a learner, relationships, feedback and practical content. Reflecting on these incidents the neophyte’s supervisor offers another perspective, and along with the narrative accounts, furthers our understanding of important factors, and indicates recommendations to ensure quality training for professional development.
Duane Knudson and Karen Meaney
PALIR program consisted of two initiatives: the enhancement of regularly scheduled classroom renovation to support active learning and voluntary professional development for interested faculty. Exiting and incoming department chairs collaborated on requests for enhancement of a typical summer renovation
Christopher M. Carr
This paper describes one psychologist’s professional journey providing clinical sport psychological services to student athletes, from training to first position, and on to current roles and responsibilities. Obstacles in providing psychological care to student-athletes in the intercollegiate setting are highlighted and an approach to overcoming these obstacles is articulated. Most importantly, this paper highlights the consequences of both interdisciplinary conflict within sport psychology and poorly trained professionals. The importance of ongoing professional development for both the individual practitioner and the field of sport psychology as a whole is thoroughly presented and discussed.
Kathleen M. Armour and Martin Yelling
This paper reports data from the third phase of a 2-year investigation into continuing professional development (CPD) for physical education teachers in England. The purpose of this phase was to examine the ways in which 10 case study teachers engaged in professional learning over the course of 1 academic year. Data were collected from a series of individual interviews with the teachers, learning diaries, field notes, and a final focus group interview. The findings suggest that these teachers identified CPD as “going on a course,” but, in reality, they learned in a variety of ways. The most striking finding was the high value they placed on learning informally (yet strategically) with and from each other. We argue, therefore, that the traditional relationship between teachers and CPD provision needs to be altered such that teachers in their professional learning communities or networks play a leading role.
Okseon Lee and Euichang Choi
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers’ implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data were collected from interviews with the teachers and students, observations, and teachers’ reflective journal entries. The findings revealed that PD enhanced the fidelity of implementation in terms of improving structural adherence, facilitating coherent instructional delivery, and making the students more active and responsible. The PD also helped the teachers to adapt the model by developing cultural differentiation strategies, modifying existing components, and extending the implementation of the TPSR through connection with other subjects or activities. The teachers found that the PD facilitated their implementation of TPSR by giving them common goals, empowering them as creators of knowledge, and providing a continuous and authentic learning experience.