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Kevin Patton, Melissa Parker and Erica Pratt

The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogy of facilitation within physical education professional development (PD). Specific research questions were: 1) What were the self-identified pedagogical strategies employed by facilitators in PD?, and 2) From the perspective of the participants, what strategies contributed to their growth as learners? Participants included fifteen PD facilitators and 88 teachers from eight selected professional learning communities in the U.S. and Europe. Data sources included interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three participant-centered pedagogical strategies reflected facilitators’ methods and teachers’ perceptions: (a) learning as doing: providing structure without dictating, (b) learning as trying: creating and testing new ideas, and (c) learning as sharing: public presentation of work. By teaching without telling, purposeful facilitator actions contributed to the development of an environment that encouraged teachers to become active participants in the creation of knowledge and development of professional capital.

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Robert Daniel Michael, Collin Webster, Debra Patterson, Patricia Laguna and Clay Sherman


This study examined California middle school physical education teachers’ (grades 6–8) use of assessments based on state standards to grade their students.


An electronic survey was used to collect data.


Of the 309 teachers surveyed, 74% based their assessments on the state physical education standards. Teachers who used standards-based assessments were more prone to assigning higher percentages of students’ grades to achievement-based assessments (e.g., skills testing, fitness, standards competency) than teachers who did not use standards-based assessments. However, all teachers gave similar weightings to administrative-based assessments (e.g., dressing out appropriately). Most of the teachers (91.2%) who reported not using standards-based assessments had limited to no professional development pertaining to the standards and perceived this as the biggest challenge to using standards-based assessments.


This study shows that professional development may be an important factor in teachers’ use of standards-based assessments and achievement-focused grading in middle school physical education.

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan

implementation can be mitigated via effective professional development programs ( Hunzicker, 2011 ). Professional Development Programs In teaching and education, professional development programs provide feasible opportunities for teachers to develop and refine high-quality teaching practice in an ever

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Robin J. Dunn and Sarah A. Doolittle

preservice PE teacher education, and through professional development and staff training for in-service teachers, activity leaders, and coaches; (b) a summary of barriers to learning and implementing TPSR and recommendations for increasing the impact of formal and informal ways of teaching TPSR; and (c

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Hayley Morrison and Doug Gleddie

assume that professional development (PD)—a provision method used to mitigate challenges that practitioners 1 face in their teaching and assist their understanding about specific processes, concepts, or subject matter ( Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995 )—would be provided to practitioners instructing

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder, Kaizeen Badshah and Casey Cushing

exist, as social media can be used to promote custodial views and practices ( Tinning, 2004 ), and quality control is limited ( Erwin, 2016 ), the potential of platforms such as Twitter for teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) and student learning in physical education (PE) is also

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Stephen Harvey and Jeffrey P. Carpenter

Schools, districts, and states mandate that educators engage in professional development (PD) experiences and often support participation in additional PD, such as conferences or coursework. Also, to maintain their teaching credentials, educators typically must participate in required, sanctioned

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Stephen Harvey, Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Brendon P. Hyndman

largely focused on (a) professional development and learning (PDL), (b) communication, and (c) class activities ( Carpenter & Krutka, 2014 , 2015 ). For example, social media sites can be used to allow collaboration among teachers, to share information with families, and to extend classroom discussions

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Ann Pulling Kuhn, Russell L. Carson, Aaron Beighle and Darla M. Castelli

(PE), (b) PA before and after school, (c) PA during school, (d) family and community engagement, and (e) staff involvement ( Centers for Disease Control, 2019 ). A corresponding professional development program, known as the Physical Activity Leader (PAL) Learning System, is available to help teachers

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Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey

This closing chapter examines what has been learned from the studies collected in this monograph and how this relates to the extant literature. The implications of this work for educator practice and future research on social media use for professional development and learning (PDL) are also