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Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li and Matthew Curtner-Smith

proposed them. Contemporary scholars, however, emphasize that the decisions made within each of these categories are also influenced by socio-cultural contexts, educational standards, and school values ( Kirk, 2010 ). Professional knowledge and subject specific knowledge underpinning the decisions a

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Paul G. Schempp

Steve Sommers has taught high school physical education for 16 years, and in that time he has learned much about the demands that teachers face in public schools. This study examined how Steve constructed the knowledge necessary to meet those demands. Specifically, this study sought to describe the sources and processes used in making pedagogical decisions. Data were collected over one academic year using life history and ethnographic techniques. Data analysis entailed reducing data to themes and categories that identified the specific sources of knowledge and how Steve used those sources in his teaching. Steve relied upon four primary knowledge sources: community, school, profession, and biography. These sources provided Steve with the expectations for his teaching and the limits of his responsibilities. Further, these sources provided the raw information that Steve translated into classroom practices. A dialectic tension existed between Steve and his occupational environment that shaped and gave status to his professional service.

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Ciria Margarita Salazar C., Pedro Julian Flores Moreno, José Encarnación Del Río Valdivia, Lenin Tlamatini Barajas Pineda, Julio Alejandro Gómez Figueroa and Martha Patricia Pérez López

The purpose of this paper is to describe the profile of coaching and coach education in Mexico. Mexico currently plays a prevailing sport role at a Pan-American level. Five types of coaches exist in Mexico: professional, amateur, personal or private, schooling and plainspeople. Each one is defined by the scopes, knowledge and its application, and sporting results achieved. The development of Mexican coaches is based on a traditional training model. It is important that coach developers in Mexico observe the progresses of countries that have advanced in the development of academic improvement programs and coach development opportunities offered through institutes of higher education.

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Yaohui He, Phillip Ward and Xiaozan Wang

Purpose: Teacher knowledge of rules, techniques, and tactics is called common content knowledge. Such knowledge is essential for effective teaching of physical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a test of soccer common content knowledge. Method: Rasch modeling was used to evaluate the validity and reliability of a test of soccer to a sample of 530 Chinese teacher education students. Results: Twenty-seven of 30 questions demonstrated good item-model fit. Moderately high internal consistency for personability and high internal consistency for item difficulty are reported. There were gaps between personability estimates and item-difficulty levels at the lower and higher ends of the map, indicating a lack of more easy and difficult questions. Conclusion: The analysis provides evidence to support the validity and reliability of this instrument as a test of soccer common content knowledge for Chinese preservice physical education teachers.

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Phillip Ward, Yaohui He, Xiaozan Wang and Weidong Li

Purpose: Accurately measuring the content knowledge of teachers is critical to designing professional development to support their teaching. We examined the depth of specialized content knowledge (SCK), defined in terms of instructional tasks reported by teachers and factors that could affect their SCK. Method: Content maps were used to evaluate the SCK of 384 Chinese secondary physical education teachers. Teacher demographic variables such as age, gender, educational background, teaching, coaching, and playing histories, and engagement with professional development were also collected. SCK scores were analyzed descriptively. An ANOVA was conducted to investigate demographic variables that could influence SCK scores. Results: Descriptive data showed a majority of teachers (78.2%) had low SCK scores. The ANOVA analysis showed that teachers’ ranking position, and years of teaching experience, significantly predicted the SCK score. The remainder of the variables failed to significantly predict the SCK score. A post hoc analysis showed that 1st grade rank teachers scored marginally better than those with a 3rd grade rank. Teachers’ years of teaching experience negatively predicted their scores on the content map. Teachers who had more years of teaching experience scored lower on their SCK. Conclusion: A majority of teachers in this study had low SCK. These two statistically significant relationships found were weak but not meaningful. Our findings suggest that SCK, as a special kind of content knowledge, may not be easily obtained from experience.

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Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su

Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.

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David P. Hedlund, Carol A. Fletcher, Simon M. Pack and Sean Dahlin

knowledge areas in sport: (1) professional knowledge about the sport, athletes, sport science, coaching theory and methodology, and foundational skills; (2) interpersonal knowledge about the social context of sport and relationships amongst participants and stakeholders; and (3) intrapersonal knowledge

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Richard I. Tinning

Student teaching as a significant part of the professional development of physical education teachers is implicated in the general failure of teacher education to adequately prepare teachers who can envision a world of schooling that is any different from the present one. This paper argues that the dominant pedagogy of student teaching is inherently conservative, is characterized by technical rationality, and embraces an outmoded view of professional knowledge. The adoption of a critical-inquiry perspective in student teaching is offered as a possible alternative.

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Paul Garner and Denise M. Hill

Given the enduring focus of coach education on the development of professional knowledge (e.g., technique, strategy, and tactics), the current study aimed to explore how a Community of Practice (CoP) impacted coach development of interpersonal and intrapersonal knowledge. Côté and Gilbert’s (2009) definition of coaching expertise was used as a model to observe learning in a community of practice (CoP; Wenger, McDermott & Snyder, 2002). A total of eight internationally qualified ski coaches (aged 27–44 years) took part in weekly meetings over a period of six weeks, with the lead researcher cultivating a CoP and ensuring coaching issues were the focus of discussion. Meetings were audio-recorded and the data transcribed and analysed thematically. Results revealed that coaches developed both interpersonal and intrapersonal knowledge through enhanced emotional intelligence, gaining an athlete-centred approach, storytelling, group reflection and changing role frames. The findings are positioned within the extant literature, with implication for coach education practice identified.

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Alisa G. Anderson, Zöe Knowles and David Gilbourne

Current training models appear ill equipped to support sport psychology trainees in learning the requisite humanistic skills to provide athlete-centered services (Petitpas, Giges, & Danish, 1999). The aim of this paper is to build a case for the value of reflective practice as an approach to professional training and development that can assist practitioners in effectively managing themselves in practice. In developing the case for reflective practice, we discuss the nature of professional knowledge (Schön, 1987), define reflection, and present popular models of the reflective process from “educare” professions. In addition, we consider the application of reflective practice within sport psychology practice and highlight how reflective practice can benefit the professional and personal development of practitioners. Finally, discussion on appropriate outlets for the dissemination of reflective narratives is undertaken.