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Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li, and Matthew Curtner-Smith

proposed them. Contemporary scholars, however, emphasize that the decisions made within each of these categories are also influenced by socio-cultural contexts, educational standards, and school values ( Kirk, 2010 ). Professional knowledge and subject specific knowledge underpinning the decisions a

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Phillip Ward

broader conception of professional knowledge as the application and adaptation of teaching techniques. One conception is to situate the preparation for teaching around the theme of professional judgments—judgments that are informed by understanding the nuance and complexity of the context; the teacher

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Paul G. Schempp

Steve Sommers has taught high school physical education for 16 years, and in that time he has learned much about the demands that teachers face in public schools. This study examined how Steve constructed the knowledge necessary to meet those demands. Specifically, this study sought to describe the sources and processes used in making pedagogical decisions. Data were collected over one academic year using life history and ethnographic techniques. Data analysis entailed reducing data to themes and categories that identified the specific sources of knowledge and how Steve used those sources in his teaching. Steve relied upon four primary knowledge sources: community, school, profession, and biography. These sources provided Steve with the expectations for his teaching and the limits of his responsibilities. Further, these sources provided the raw information that Steve translated into classroom practices. A dialectic tension existed between Steve and his occupational environment that shaped and gave status to his professional service.

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Ciria Margarita Salazar C., Pedro Julian Flores Moreno, José Encarnación Del Río Valdivia, Lenin Tlamatini Barajas Pineda, Julio Alejandro Gómez Figueroa, and Martha Patricia Pérez López

The purpose of this paper is to describe the profile of coaching and coach education in Mexico. Mexico currently plays a prevailing sport role at a Pan-American level. Five types of coaches exist in Mexico: professional, amateur, personal or private, schooling and plainspeople. Each one is defined by the scopes, knowledge and its application, and sporting results achieved. The development of Mexican coaches is based on a traditional training model. It is important that coach developers in Mexico observe the progresses of countries that have advanced in the development of academic improvement programs and coach development opportunities offered through institutes of higher education.

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Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He, and Jianzhen Su

Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.

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Yaohui He, Phillip Ward, and Xiaozan Wang

Purpose: Teacher knowledge of rules, techniques, and tactics is called common content knowledge. Such knowledge is essential for effective teaching of physical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a test of soccer common content knowledge. Method: Rasch modeling was used to evaluate the validity and reliability of a test of soccer to a sample of 530 Chinese teacher education students. Results: Twenty-seven of 30 questions demonstrated good item-model fit. Moderately high internal consistency for personability and high internal consistency for item difficulty are reported. There were gaps between personability estimates and item-difficulty levels at the lower and higher ends of the map, indicating a lack of more easy and difficult questions. Conclusion: The analysis provides evidence to support the validity and reliability of this instrument as a test of soccer common content knowledge for Chinese preservice physical education teachers.

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Phillip Ward, Yaohui He, Xiaozan Wang, and Weidong Li

Purpose: Accurately measuring the content knowledge of teachers is critical to designing professional development to support their teaching. We examined the depth of specialized content knowledge (SCK), defined in terms of instructional tasks reported by teachers and factors that could affect their SCK. Method: Content maps were used to evaluate the SCK of 384 Chinese secondary physical education teachers. Teacher demographic variables such as age, gender, educational background, teaching, coaching, and playing histories, and engagement with professional development were also collected. SCK scores were analyzed descriptively. An ANOVA was conducted to investigate demographic variables that could influence SCK scores. Results: Descriptive data showed a majority of teachers (78.2%) had low SCK scores. The ANOVA analysis showed that teachers’ ranking position, and years of teaching experience, significantly predicted the SCK score. The remainder of the variables failed to significantly predict the SCK score. A post hoc analysis showed that 1st grade rank teachers scored marginally better than those with a 3rd grade rank. Teachers’ years of teaching experience negatively predicted their scores on the content map. Teachers who had more years of teaching experience scored lower on their SCK. Conclusion: A majority of teachers in this study had low SCK. These two statistically significant relationships found were weak but not meaningful. Our findings suggest that SCK, as a special kind of content knowledge, may not be easily obtained from experience.

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Yaohui He, Phillip Ward, Xiaozan Wang, and Guang Yang

Purpose: To examine the relationships among demographic variables, common content knowledge (CCK), and specialized content knowledge (SCK) of Chinese physical education teachers in teaching soccer. Methods: One hundred twenty-nine physical education teachers’ CCK was assessed using 27 multiple choice questions, and SCK was assessed using content maps using an SCK index score. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships to demographic variables as predictors of CCK and SCK. A Spearman test assessed the associations between variables. Results: For CCK, 88.4% of the teachers scored at or above 60% correct in the test. The teacher’s gender (β = 0.22, t = −2.53, p < .05) and the number of soccer workshops attended (β = 0.33, t = 2.96, p < .001) significantly predicted CCK. About 92.2% of the teachers had an SCK index score of <2.9. The number of soccer workshops attended (β = 0.31, t = 2.74, p < .05) and teaching rank significantly predicted the SCK score. There was no relationship found between CCK and SCK. Conclusions: For these participants, their preservice education and their professional development did not serve them well in teaching CCK and SCK.

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Paul Garner, Jennifer Turnnidge, Will Roberts, and Jean Côté

knowledge when developing coaching effectiveness ( Côté & Gilbert, 2009 ; Lefebvre et al., 2016 ; Turnnidge & Côté, 2018 ), CEs must follow a similar trajectory in embracing the interpersonal knowledge requisite of their role and move beyond a reliance on content and professional knowledge in order to

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David P. Hedlund, Carol A. Fletcher, Simon M. Pack, and Sean Dahlin

knowledge areas in sport: (1) professional knowledge about the sport, athletes, sport science, coaching theory and methodology, and foundational skills; (2) interpersonal knowledge about the social context of sport and relationships amongst participants and stakeholders; and (3) intrapersonal knowledge