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Kevin Patton, Melissa Parker, and Erica Pratt

The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogy of facilitation within physical education professional development (PD). Specific research questions were: 1) What were the self-identified pedagogical strategies employed by facilitators in PD?, and 2) From the perspective of the participants, what strategies contributed to their growth as learners? Participants included fifteen PD facilitators and 88 teachers from eight selected professional learning communities in the U.S. and Europe. Data sources included interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three participant-centered pedagogical strategies reflected facilitators’ methods and teachers’ perceptions: (a) learning as doing: providing structure without dictating, (b) learning as trying: creating and testing new ideas, and (c) learning as sharing: public presentation of work. By teaching without telling, purposeful facilitator actions contributed to the development of an environment that encouraged teachers to become active participants in the creation of knowledge and development of professional capital.

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Robert Daniel Michael, Collin Webster, Debra Patterson, Patricia Laguna, and Clay Sherman


This study examined California middle school physical education teachers’ (grades 6–8) use of assessments based on state standards to grade their students.


An electronic survey was used to collect data.


Of the 309 teachers surveyed, 74% based their assessments on the state physical education standards. Teachers who used standards-based assessments were more prone to assigning higher percentages of students’ grades to achievement-based assessments (e.g., skills testing, fitness, standards competency) than teachers who did not use standards-based assessments. However, all teachers gave similar weightings to administrative-based assessments (e.g., dressing out appropriately). Most of the teachers (91.2%) who reported not using standards-based assessments had limited to no professional development pertaining to the standards and perceived this as the biggest challenge to using standards-based assessments.


This study shows that professional development may be an important factor in teachers’ use of standards-based assessments and achievement-focused grading in middle school physical education.

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Anqi Deng, Tan Zhang, Yubing Wang, and Ang Chen

Continuing professional development (CPD) is a critical element in curriculum reform. At the current time, it has become an urgent need to reeducate physical education (PE) teachers on teaching health-enhancing PE ( Haerens, Aelterman, Meester, & Tallir, 2017 ). CPD is acknowledged to be essential

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Brian Dauenhauer, Jennifer M. Krause, Dannon G. Cox, Katie L. Hodgin, Jaimie McMullen, and Russell L. Carson

Continuing professional development (PD) for teachers is instrumental in the development of quality physical education programs ( Patton et al., 2013 ). It has the capacity to cultivate teacher content knowledge, improve instructional repertoires, nurture collaborative practices, and improve the

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Okseon Lee, Euichang Choi, Victoria Goodyear, Mark Griffiths, Hyukjun Son, Hyunsoo Jung, and Wonhee Lee

There is extensive international evidence that continuous professional development (CPD) is a key mechanism for teachers to learn and develop their practices so as to meet the complex needs of young people today ( Darling-Hammond, Hyler, & Gardner, 2017 ; Groundwater-Smith, 2017 ; Vangrieken

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Kristina M. Sobolewski, Larissa T. Lobo, Alexandra L. Stoddart, and Serene Kerpan

). Most general education teachers have positive views of MI, yet there is still limited uptake ( Michael et al., 2019 ). Teacher-cited barriers to MI include absence of professional development, lack of time, low confidence, safety concerns, poor adaptability to classroom lessons, low perceptions of PA

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones, and Richard J. Keegan

implementation can be mitigated via effective professional development programs ( Hunzicker, 2011 ). Professional Development Programs In teaching and education, professional development programs provide feasible opportunities for teachers to develop and refine high-quality teaching practice in an ever

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Ann Pulling Kuhn, Russell L. Carson, Aaron Beighle, and Darla M. Castelli

(PE), (b) PA before and after school, (c) PA during school, (d) family and community engagement, and (e) staff involvement ( Centers for Disease Control, 2019 ). A corresponding professional development program, known as the Physical Activity Leader (PAL) Learning System, is available to help teachers

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Stephanie Beni, Tim Fletcher, and Déirdre Ní Chróinín

’ implementation of innovations through effective professional development (PD) initiatives if they are to experience lasting changes to their teaching practice ( Century & Cassata, 2016 ; Goodyear & Casey, 2015 ). Thus, the purposes of this research were to design a PD initiative to introduce teachers to

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Robin J. Dunn and Sarah A. Doolittle

preservice PE teacher education, and through professional development and staff training for in-service teachers, activity leaders, and coaches; (b) a summary of barriers to learning and implementing TPSR and recommendations for increasing the impact of formal and informal ways of teaching TPSR; and (c