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Transforming Higher Education

Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

Engineering, and College of Education, with current total enrollments over 6,000. Stacking strategies that allow students to proceed from nondegree enrollment into a degree program have been developed. • Continuing professional education opportunities for professional associations: Gies College of Business

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Providers of Continued Professional Education: Constructed Perceptions of Four Elementary School Physical Education Teachers

Becky W. Pissanos

The purpose of this inquiry was to gain insight into the influence of the three primary providers of continued professional education—educational institutions, professional associations, and employers—on teachers’ continued professional learning. Four experienced elementary school physical education teachers were selected as participants using the typical case purposeful sampling technique. Participants were asked to share their constructed perceptions regarding the providers through a series of three semistructured, open-ended interviews. Data were inductively analyzed using the constant comparative analytic strategy. The result indicated that the teachers did not perceive educational institutions, professional associations, or employers to be contributing significantly to their continued professional learning. They concluded that continued professional learning is more closely related to the teacher’s motivation and commitment levels and to the teaching realities of marginality, isolation, and monotony that influence those levels.

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Profile of Coaching and Coach Education in Mexico

Ciria Margarita Salazar C., Pedro Julian Flores Moreno, José Encarnación Del Río Valdivia, Lenin Tlamatini Barajas Pineda, Julio Alejandro Gómez Figueroa, and Martha Patricia Pérez López

The purpose of this paper is to describe the profile of coaching and coach education in Mexico. Mexico currently plays a prevailing sport role at a Pan-American level. Five types of coaches exist in Mexico: professional, amateur, personal or private, schooling and plainspeople. Each one is defined by the scopes, knowledge and its application, and sporting results achieved. The development of Mexican coaches is based on a traditional training model. It is important that coach developers in Mexico observe the progresses of countries that have advanced in the development of academic improvement programs and coach development opportunities offered through institutes of higher education.

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Perceived Benefits of Graduate-Level Professional Education in Athletic Training

Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Thomas G. Bowman, and Jessica L. Barrett

The commissioners of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) and the Board of Directors of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) have acted to move the professional degree in athletic training from a bachelor’s degree to a graduate degree. The decision was largely based upon growth of the profession and aligning with the face of healthcare education. Therefore, we wanted to understand the perceived benefits of the graduate model. Using a qualitative paradigm, we electronically interviewed 29 students and faculty members (13 athletic training faculty and program directors, 16 students) currently in Professional Masters Athletic Training Programs (PM ATP). These represented 13 of the 29 (45%) CAATE-accredited PM ATPs. Five themes emerged from the data: (1) engagement and time spent in clinical education allows students to prepare for their roles as athletic trainers, (2) faculty stress the importance of interprofessional education, (3) expecting prior foundational knowledge allows focused education training at the graduate level, (4) increased professional commitment to stay in athletic training rather than use the training/education as a stepping-stone to other career paths, and (5) higher student maturity facilitates deeper learning. Based on these results, the perceived benefits of the PM ATP model are multifactorial.

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Are Irish Athletic Therapy Students Confident in Concussion Assessment and Management? A Cross-Sectional Study of Final Year Students’ Self-Efficacy

Anna P. Postawa, Enda F. Whyte, and Siobhán O’Connor

development of self-efficacy was also reported among medical 21 – 23 and nursing students. 24 Considering the importance of professional education for development of clinicians’ self-efficacy, 21 , 22 , 24 this study aimed to explore Irish athletic therapy students’ self-efficacy in concussion assessment

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Chapter 8: Collective Action for Learning, Improvement, and Redesign

Hal A. Lawson, Emily Jones, Zac Beddoes, Steven Estes, Stephanie A. Morris, Murray F. Mitchell, Hans van der Mars, and Phillip Ward

safeguard continuity and consistency among professional standards, best practice guidelines, and professional education/professional development delivery mechanisms. At the same time, these dedicated leaders continue to improve PETE standards, while providing supportive resources, such as journal articles

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Teacher Socialization in Physical Education: A Scoping Review of Literature

K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

occupational socialization theory. PETE = physical education teacher education. Regarding professional socialization, it is important that all professional education programs, including those that prepare preservice teachers, consider the development of active and engaged learning experiences that promote

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Reflecting on Initiating Sport Psychology Consultation: A Self-Narrative of Neophyte Practice

Nicholas L. Holt and William B. Strean

Few studies have considered specific factors of service delivery in applied sport psychology that might contribute to successful outcomes (Petitpas, Giges, & Danish, 1999). It has been suggested that the sport psychology consultant (SPC)-athlete relationship is at the core of athlete-centered approaches (Petitpas et al., 1999; Ravizza, 1990; Thompson, 1998). The purposes of this paper are to discuss issues related to (a) professional education, training, and the role of supervision in the SPC service delivery process; (b) the SPC-athlete relationship; and (c) the need for reflective practice in applied sport psychology. A narrative of self (Sparkes, 2000) is presented by a trainee SPC to demonstrate the practicality of Tripp’s (1993) critical incident reflection exercise. Issues arising from an initial intake meeting with a competitive athlete are reflected upon and analyzed. Reflection is suggested as a tool for education and supervision in applied sport psychology.

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What Preservice Physical Education Teachers See in an Unguided, Early Field Experience

Rick Bell, Kate R. Barrett, and Pamela C. Allison

The ability of physical education teachers to observe the movement response of the learner and the environment in which the response takes place is crucial in effective instruction. This study is an initial attempt to identify what a group of 21 preservice physical education teachers reported seeing in a 15-minute games lesson with fourth-grade students. An analytic inductive strategy was employed to categorize the data at two levels of specificity. Results indicated that as a group the preservice teachers focused on a broad range of teacher and student behaviors and lesson elements, but as individuals they had a more limited focus of attention. Level 2 analysis revealed that only 10% of the recorded statements focused on the movement responses of the children and no statements related to the learning environment. If teacher educators deem it important that their majors notice teacher and student behaviors as well as lesson elements, they have to plan more carefully for this to occur, particularly with majors early in their professional education.

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Elite Adolescent Athletes’ Use of Dietary Supplements: Characteristics, Opinions, and Sources of Supply and Information

Katharina Diehl, Ansgar Thiel, Stephan Zipfel, Jochen Mayer, Alexia Schnell, and Sven Schneider

The authors’ aim was to examine the prevalence of (daily) dietary-supplement (DS) use among elite adolescent athletes and to differentiate use by different types of DS according to their function. Data were analyzed for associations between users of these DS types, sociodemographic, sport-specific characteristics, and opinion on the need for DS. In addition, sources of supply and information were examined. In the framework of the GOAL Study, 1,138 German elite adolescent athletes (14–18 yr) answered questions about DS. The data were analyzed to identify groups at risk for using DS after a classification by supplemental function. Of the young athletes, 91.1% reported DS use during the previous month. (Daily) DS use was significantly associated with sex, kind of sport, and the weekly duration of sporting activity. Furthermore, some athletes were required to use DS by their sporting organization. DS use was more likely in these athletes than in those whose sporting organizations had no such requirement. Overall, DS with short- and long-term supplemental function were mostly associated with the use of magnesium. However, DS with medium-term muscle-building function played an important role among daily users. The main source of information about DS was coaches; main source of supply was parents. Professional education is urgently needed, as 9 out of 10 athletes used DS, and strong positive opinions toward the use of DS were present, particularly in the DS users.