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Nicholas Gilson, Wendy J. Brown, Guy Faulkner, Jim McKenna, Marie Murphy, Andy Pringle, Karin Proper, Anna Puig-Ribera and Aphroditi Stathi


This paper aimed to use the Delphi technique to develop a consensus framework for a multinational, workplace walking intervention.


Ideas were gathered and ranked from eight recognized and emerging experts in the fields of physical activity and health, from universities in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, and Spain. Members of the panel were asked to consider the key characteristics of a successful campus walking intervention. Consensus was reached by an inductive, content analytic approach, conducted through an anonymous, three-round, e-mail process.


The resulting framework consisted of three interlinking themes defined as “design, implementation, and evaluation.” Top-ranked subitems in these themes included the need to generate research capacity (design), to respond to group needs through different walking approaches (implementation), and to undertake physical activity assessment (evaluation). Themes were set within an underpinning domain, referred to as the “institution” and sites are currently engaging with subitems in this domain, to provide sustainable interventions that refect the practicalities of local contexts and needs.


Findings provide a unique framework for designing, implementing, and evaluating walking projects in universities and highlight the value of adopting the Delphi technique for planning international, multisite health initiatives.

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Jill R. Reed, Paul Estabrooks, Bunny Pozehl, Kate Heelan and Christopher Wichman

Background: Most rural adults do not meet current guidelines for physical activity (PA). A 12-week feasibility study tested the effectiveness of using the 5A’s model for PA counseling on rural adults’ PA behaviors. Methods: Inactive rural adults recruited from a primary care clinic were randomized to an intervention (n = 30) or control (n = 29) group. All subjects wore a Fitbit to track steps and active minutes. The intervention group completed action plans to improve self-regulatory PA strategies and received weekly motivational text messages to improve PA behaviors. Theory of planned behavior constructs and self-regulatory strategies of planning, goal setting, and tracking (steps and active minutes) were measured with both groups. The control group received the Fitbit only. Results: All individuals became more physically active; however, no significant differences between groups in active minutes or steps were found. All subjects, regardless of group, increased steps (P > .05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups on any of the theoretical variables. Conclusions: It is vitally important to continue to find ways to make PA a priority to improve the overall health and well-being of rural adults. Future research warrants adjusting the intervention dose and strategies to increase PA that can be maintained long term.

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Phillip Ward

program planning (e.g.,  Hung et al., 2008 ; Ponce et al., 2017 ) and medicine, nursing, and health education (e.g.,  Grigore et al., 2016 ). In this study, it was critical to allow the core practice statements to be shaped by both editing and also by the rationales for the edits, something not possible

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R. Todd Bartee, Burke Grandjean, Michael S. Dunn, James M. Eddy and Min Qi Wang

This study sought to predict the use of dietary supplements marketed to enhance athletic performance among 1,737 adolescent athletes. An anonymous, paper-and-pencil, self-report survey was administered to the participants. Grade level, participation in multiple sports, and scales representing attitudes, subjective norms, and intention were all significant predictors of current dietary supplement use. The results of this study allow for the development of more appropriate prevention and intervention strategies that can target specific groups of adolescent athletes. We recommend that attitudes of adolescent athletes be addressed in interventions and that salient others be included in program planning.

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Jeremy T. Barnes and Thomas J. Pujol

Partnerships have been developed between faculty in the Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation at Southeast Missouri State University and professionals from several organizations. These include on-campus partnerships with other academic departments, Recreation Services, Counseling and Disability Services, and a wide variety of off-campus partnerships including those with hospitals, fitness centers, county health departments, local coalitions, not-for-profits, schools K–12, and local corporations. All of these partnerships have resulted in substantial experiential learning opportunities for the students in the BS in Health Management: Health Promotion Option Program. Some of the skills students have acquired include improved written and oral communication skills, public speaking, program planning, program implementation, data collection, program evaluation, exercise testing, and prescription and health screening. The experiential learning activities students completed in two of the required classes in the major are described in this article.

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Graham Cuskelly and Christopher J. Auld

This investigation examined the perceived importance of a range of occupational responsibilities of sport and recreation managers and whether there were differences according to the organizational setting. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to 196 sport and recreation managers in Queensland, Australia; there was an effective response rate of 124 (69%). The results indicated that the job responsibilities perceived as most important were public relations, financial management, program planning and management, and interpersonal communication. Significant differences were found between managers in different work settings. It was also evident that there were commonalities in the perceived importance of job competencies between the United States and Australia. The study concluded that there have been generally consistent findings about the perceived importance of job competencies, and that different sectors of the sport industry require different emphases in curricula development and professional development programs.

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Diane E. Whaley and Vicki Ebbeck

This study used a qualitative, feminist perspective to examine issues pertaining to exercise constraints among older adults. Participants were 8 male and 9 female older adults (mean age = 76.7) who chose not to engage in structured exercise classes. Twenty-six self-identified constraints were elicited (mean = four per person). Additionally, four constraints per person from previous research were selected. The most frequently cited self-reported constraints were “get enough exercise elsewhere,” health-related items, and issues related to time. From the constraints most frequently cited in past studies, inconvenience, time, and type of activity were selected most often. Gender differences were apparent in the constraints chosen as well as reasons why a particular constraint inhibited or prohibited activity. Specific suggestions for strategies included having programs with a purpose, building in flexibility, and encouraging men to participate. The influence of gender is explored, especially how expanding our understanding of gender issues might improve program planning.

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Howard L. Nixon II

Despite the stigma usually attached to disabled people, and the attendant difficulty in picturing disabled people in “normal” societal roles interacting and competing with nondisabled people, a mandate for integrating disabled and nondisabled people in all areas of society has been thrust upon Americans during the past decade through judicial, legal, and social pressures and political action. This paper focuses on the appropriate integration of disabled and nondisabled people in sport. It considers some potentially salient personal attribute and background parameters (i.e., type and severity of disability and amount of sports background) and sports structure parameters (i.e., type of sport, amount of disability adaptation, and degree of competition) that could affect the extent to which integration efforts in sport result in genuine integration and a reduction in the stigmatization and handicapped minority status of disabled people. It is hoped that this paper, and the general hypotheses it proposes about appropriate integration, will serve to guide future research and informed action in program planning and implementation aimed at integrating disabled and nondisabled people in sport.

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Robert E. Rinehart

According to Paton, sport management research went through several phases up to the 1990s: a praxis phase, based upon “administrative principles, usually developed by authorities in the field, and upon program planning in physical education”; a second more theory-based phase that continues to the present; and a third descriptive phase (Paton, 1987, p. 26). In most of this research, however, the use of methodological innovation in research and in reporting research has been relatively scarce (as in many of the subdisciplines in physical education/kinesiology). In the present article, I argue for the use of personal narrative and personal storytelling in sport management research methodology, which might result in the asking of different questions and in write-ups that could serve to invigorate sport management studies. This method of research answers different, interactionist-based questions for researchers delving into how sport management affects people and how sport managers interact with others. In other words, this method examines how lives are lived into existence, and it provides models for practitioners and scholars of sport management to model, discover, experience, and use.

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Keith W. Lambrecht

The focus of this study was to identify the curricular preparation needs for sport club managers and to determine if there are differences in the curricular preparation needs for sport club managers in regard to organizational size. A questionnaire comprised of 30 curricular need statements was mailed to 500 randomly selected sport club managers; 264 responded. There were 83 in Group I, 95 in Group II, and 86 in Group III. A one-way analysis of variance test was employed for hypothesis testing. Tukey’s ω method was utilized for group comparison of rejected hypotheses, and factor analysis was employed for clustering of the curricular preparation needs. Marketing was the top rated curricular need. Two curricular need statements rejected were “program planning for youths” and “research interpretation and utilization,” and five clusters were extracted from factor analysis. Based on the findings of this study, curricular preparation needs for sport club managers have been identified; however, there seems to be little difference in curricular preparation needs in regard to organizational size.