, decision makers seem to be convinced that intensified competition serves to erode inheritance effects and question the foundation of many traditional programming strategies (e.g., Webster, 2006 ). Moreover, sports broadcasts are supposed to disrupt formatted schedules and may, therefore, further
Henk Erik Meier, Jörg Hagenah, and Malte Jetzke
the approaches that networks have taken in replacing their live event coverage in the wake of coronavirus, rather than being completely novel, instead represent relatively familiar programming strategies. An Abbreviated History of Alternative Programming Alternative sports television programming has a
Mitchell McSweeney, Per G. Svensson, and Michael L. Naraine
(soccer). While David liked this separation of tasks between the Toronto and local offices, one of the primary issues was that program operations and decision making led to variability in each country given inconsistent organizational resources, staffing, and program strategies. Although these practices
A systematic management program is often needed to control student behavior or elicit their optimum level of performance. One management system that is beginning to receive attention in physical education is the application of physical activity reinforcement (McKenzie, 1979; Siedentop, 1983). This system of reinforcement is defined as a systematic procedure in which a structured time to choose among various physical education activities is contingent on the individual’s meeting a predetermined criterion of behavior. The following discussion of the research conducted on program strategies and benefits utilizing physical activity reinforcement will enable practitioners to incorporate such a management system into their physical education program.
Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods
Background/Purpose: This aspect of this study examined physical education teacher education (PETE) program coordinators’ perspectives on their role in student recruitment, including common recruitment strategies and their effectiveness, perceived barriers to engaging in program recruitment, and commonly used marketing strategies. Method: Data were collected from 175 PETE program coordinators through the online survey described fully in Chapter 4 of this monograph. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and one-way analyses of variance. Results: Strategies perceived as effective in recruiting high school students were moderately associated with those most often implemented (r = .46–.50). Some limited differences by Carnegie level were found related to reported barriers to participation in recruitment activities. Discussion/Conclusion: This study reveals general consistency between PETE coordinators’ perceptions of the most effective and frequently used recruitment strategies to attract students into PETE initial licensure programs. Strategies, barriers, and suggested future directions align with much of the PETE recruitment literature.
Douglas M. Carroll
The emergence of single-sport cable channels represents a refinement of the allsports cable-channel concept and a new trend in the televised-sport marketplace. This study analyzed the contents of 24 continuous hours of programming on Golf Channel and tabulated the number and types of advertisements to better understand commercial programming strategies and practices. Commercial programming elements such as spot commercials, spot promotions, sponsored graphics, pop-up promotions, mentions, infomercials, and public service announcements were identified. In addition, commercial programming during live tournament coverage was compared with golf telecasts at 2 broadcast networks and an all-sports cable channel. The study measured 3 indicators of the amount of advertising presented in the telecasts: the number of commercial minutes per hour, the number of advertisements per hour, and the average duration of spot commercials. Results of the study were interpreted in terms of advertising clutter.
Craig Pickering, Dylan Hicks, and John Kiely
Elite sprint performances typically peak during an athlete’s 20s and decline thereafter with age. The mechanisms underpinning this sprint performance decline are often reported to be strength-based in nature with reductions in strength capacities driving increases in ground contact time and decreases in stride lengths and frequency. However, an as-of-yet underexplored aspect of Masters sprint performance is that of age-related degradation in neuromuscular infrastructure, which manifests as a decline in both strength and movement coordination. Here, the authors explore reductions in sprint performance in Masters athletes in a holistic fashion, blending discussion of strength and power changes with neuromuscular alterations along with mechanical and technical age-related alterations. In doing so, the authors provide recommendations to Masters sprinters—and the aging population, in general—as to how best to support sprint ability and general function with age, identifying nutritional interventions that support performance and function and suggesting useful programming strategies and injury-reduction techniques.
Brody J. Ruihley and Bo Li
. Representing this discussion, Buehler assesses programing strategies adopted by sports television networks to address the large hole left over from the loss of live sporting events. Coche and Lynn take us behind the scenes and explore how sport production practices have been impacted by COVID-19. Hull and
Tiffany J. Chen, Kathleen B. Watson, Shannon L. Michael, and Susan A. Carlson
and Youth Programs strategy for increasing physical activity. 5 In addition to objectives related to meeting the physical activity guidelines, Healthy People 2030 included national objectives for sports participation and daily PE as strategies to increase youth physical activity. 6 These guidelines
Ja Youn Kwon, Pamela H. Kulinna, Hans van der Mars, Audrey Amrein-Beardsley, and Mirka Koro-Ljungberg
, with only one element in Standard 6 focusing on PETE candidates gaining knowledge about expanded PA programming strategies. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to explore current practice relative to CSPAP preparation in PETE programs in the United States. Given the increasing emphasis on