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Effects of Progressive Resistance Exercise Training on the Motor and Nonmotor Features of Parkinson's Disease: A Review

Guillaume Lamotte, Elizabeth Skender, Miriam R. Rafferty, Fabian J. David, Steve Sadowsky, and Daniel M. Corcos


This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD).


First, we perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of PRET on motor signs of PD, functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient perceived improvement, strength, and cognition in PD. Second, we perform a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Finally, we discuss the results of our review and we identify current knowledge gaps regarding PRET in PD.


This systematic review synthesizes evidence that PRET can improve strength and motor signs of Parkinsonism in PD and may also be beneficial for physical function in individuals with PD. Further research is needed to explore the effects of PRET on nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and quality of life in individuals with PD.

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Pathophysiology of Body Composition and Metabolic Abnormalities in HIV-Infection: Therapeutic Implications

Marc K. Hellerstein

Changes in body composition and metabolism have been a central feature of HIV infection from the outset—initially, as the wasting syndrome and, more recently, as metabolic and body fat redistribution syndromes associated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Here, advances in physiologic and biochemical understanding of these conditions are reviewed. First, the pathophysiology of wasting in HIV-1 infection is discussed, focusing on the failure of nutrients to increase lean tissue (“anabolic block”) and the role of hypogonadism. Results of anabolic interventions, including recombinant growth hormone, testosterone, and progressive resistance exercise, are presented. Next, ARV-associated disorders are reviewed, including lipoatrophy and an hypothesized “mitochondrial toxicity.” The possibility of establishing pathogenesis in vivo in humans, by direct measurement of mitochondrial DNA synthesis and adipocyte proliferation, is discussed. In summary, important advances have occurred toward the goal of explaining body composition and metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease.

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Effects of Resistance Training on Muscular Strength and Functional Abilities of Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Jeanne F. Nichols, Lori M. Hitzelberger, Jennifer G. Sherman, and Patricia Patterson

This study examined the efficacy of a progressive resistance exercise program, using equal concentric/eccentric (CE) or greater eccentric/concentric (GE) workloads, for increasing strength and improving functional abilities of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty men and women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CE, GE, or control. All strength testing and training took place on six Lifecircuit machines. Functional tests included a bas carry, weighted stair climb, shelf task 1-RM, and static balance. Significant interactions in strength tests were noted for the chest, back, and shoulder exercises. GE improved in shoulder strength more than CE and control For functional measures, all weight trainers were grouped and compared to controls. A significant interaction occurred for the stair climb and balance with the exercise groups decreasing stair climb time by 11% and increasing balance time by 26%. Relative improvements by weight trainers of 12% for the shelf task and 7% for the bag carry were not significant. These data indicate that a moderate intensity resistance program can have positive effects on tasks required for everyday function.

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Hip, Knee, and Ankle Functional Demand During Habitual and Fast-Pace Walking in Younger and Older Women

Deborah Hebling Spinoso, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Camilla Zamfollini Hallal, Aline Harumi Karuka, Fernanda Cristina Milanezi, and Mauro Gonçalves

limitation, death, and hospitalization, slowing down to reduce FD may be a poor strategy for older adults trying to maintain health and independence in ADL ( Cesari et al., 2005 ; Guralnik et al., 2000 ; Langlois et al., 1997 ). Alternatively, progressive resistance exercise may increase strength capacity

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The Effect of Functional Home-Based Strength Training Programs on the Mechano-Morphological Properties of the Plantar Flexor Muscle-Tendon Unit in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik, and Markus Tilp

doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.10.021 10.1016/j.ridd.2013.10.021 24291625 29. Scholtes VA , Becher JG , Comuth A , Dekkers H , van Dijk L , Dallmeijer AJ . Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise strength training on muscle strength and mobility in children with cerebral

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The Winding Path of Measurement of the Body’s Responses to Exercise: Past, Present, and Future

Carol Ewing Garber

– 847 . Delorme , T.L. , & Watkins , A.L. ( 1948 ). Techniques of progressive resistance exercise . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 29 ( 5 ), 263 – 273 . Detry , J.M. , Rousseau , M.F. , & Brasseur , L.A. ( 1975 ). Early hemodynamic adaptations to physical training in

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Effect of Load on Muscle Activity, Kinematics, and Force Production During the Reverse Hyperextension Exercise

Michael A. Lawrence, Matthew J. Somma, and Brian T. Swanson

. PubMed ID: 34027916 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000004049 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004049 3. DeLorme TL , Watkins AL . Progressive Resistance Exercise . Appleton Century Crofts ; 1951 . 4. Hermens HJ . European Recommendations for Surface Electromyography . 2nd ed. Enschede : Roessingh ; 1999 . 5

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The Effects of High-Load Slow-Velocity Resistance Exercise Training in Athletes With Tendinopathy: A Critically Appraised Topic

J. David Taylor, Annemieke Corbitt, and Ruth Ann Mathis

: AT, Achilles tendinopathy; BMI, body mass index; CAT, critically appraised topic; CORT, corticosteroid; CSA, cross-sectional area; EQ-5D, EuroQol 5 Dimensions; HLSV, high-load slow-velocity; PGIoC, Patient Global Impression of Change; PRE, progressive resistance exercise; PSFS, Patient Specific

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Case Study: Body Composition Periodization in an Olympic-Level Female Middle-Distance Runner Over a 9-Year Career

Trent Stellingwerff

). Furthermore, through a progressive resistance exercise program and ideal protein periodization, muscle mass can actually be 100% maintained while athletes still lose total BW during a 1-week period of a large (40%) negative energy balance ( Mettler et al., 2010 ). In Mettler et al., subjects utilized a higher

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Staying Strong Together: Older People Engaging in Resistance Training With a Peer

Paige Watkins, Anne-Marie Hill, Ian K. Thaver, and Elissa Burton

-016-9641-0 O’Brien , M. , Dodd , K.J. , & Bilney , B. ( 2008 ). A qualitative analysis of a progressive resistance exercise programme for people with Parkinson’s disease . Disability and Rehabilitation, 30 ( 18 ), 1350 – 1357 . PubMed ID: 18850350 10.1080/09638280701614546 Pettigrew , S. , Burton