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Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

activity guidelines.” Therefore, when planning for the second edition of the guidelines, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion developed a corresponding communication campaign, Move Your Way. 10 This campaign is grounded in the transtheoretical model (also known as stages of change) 11

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Duane Knudson, Ting Liu, Dan Schmidt and Heather Van Mullem

learning about the service and department culture expectations. In the past, these conflicting pressures were exacerbated by a lack of guidance, unclear expectations, or maybe exploitation from some senior department faculty who expect new faulty to “pay their dues and earn retention and promotion” like

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl

directly, but also indirectly by complicated pathways that involve multiple factors. Finally, health promotion is complex because it must consider the abovementioned factors collectively, and it involves political decisions at different levels of administration for allocation of public health resources

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

, private and voluntary entities that contribute to the delivery of essential public health services within a jurisdiction.” 10 Bringing groups together that represent the public health system in a specific community and organizing the group around a specific task, such as physical activity promotion, can

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

—postintervention 1 (3 mo after Stage 2); and Stage 4—postintervention 2 (6 mo after Stage 2). Proposed Interventions Because health promotion and disease prevention demand physi- cally active behavior, making recommendations regarding this behavior is currently seen as an extremely important practice in health

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Yuan Xia, Sameer Deshpande and Tiberius Bonates

Background:

Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to an audience by making them tangible in the form of environmental opportunities to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed “benchmarks,” modified from those found in the past literature, that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and the inclusion of which would ensure behavior change effectiveness. In addition, we analyzed behavior change interventions on a “social marketing continuum” to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts.

Methods:

A systematic review of social marketing interventions available in academic studies published between 1997 and 2013 revealed 173 conditions in 92 interventions.

Results:

Findings based on χ2, Mallows’ Cp, and Logical Analysis of Data tests revealed that the presence of more benchmarks in interventions increased the likelihood of success in promoting physical activity. The presence of more than 3 benchmarks improved the success of the interventions; specifically, all interventions were successful when more than 7.5 benchmarks were present. Further, primary formative research, core product, actual product, augmented product, promotion, and behavioral competition all had a significant influence on the effectiveness of interventions.

Conclusions:

Social marketing is an effective approach in promoting physical activity among adults when a substantial number of benchmarks are used and when managers understand the audience, make the desired behavior tangible, and promote the desired behavior persuasively.

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Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Opal Vanessa Buchthal, Nicole Taniguchi, Livia Iskandar and Jay Maddock

Background:

Physical inactivity is a growing problem in the United States, one that is being addressed through the development of active living communities. However, active living promotion requires collaboration among organizations that may not have previously shared goals.

Methods:

A network analysis was conducted to assess Hawaii’s active living promotion network. Twenty-six organizations playing a significant role in promoting active living in Hawaii were identified and surveyed about their frequency of contact, level of collaboration, and funding flow with other agencies.

Results:

A communication network was identified linking all agencies. This network had many long pathways, impeding information flow. The Department of Health (DOH) and the State Nutrition and Physical Activity Coalition (NPAC) were central nodes, but DOH connected state agencies while NPAC linked county and voluntary organizations. Within the network, information sharing was common, but collaboration and formal partnership were low. Linkages between county and state agencies, between counties, and between state agencies with different core agendas were particularly low.

Conclusions:

Results suggest that in the early stages of development, active living networks may be divided by geography and core missions, requiring work to bridge these divides. Network mapping appears helpful in identifying areas for network development.

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R. Glenn Weaver, Michael W. Beets, Collin Webster and Jennifer Huberty

Background:

Frontline-staff are critical to achieving policies related to child physical activity and nutrition (PAaN) in out-of-school-time programs (OSTP). Recent policies call upon staff to demonstrate behaviors related to PAaN. Currently, no instrument exists to measure these behaviors. This study fills the gap between policy mandates and staff behaviors by describing the development of the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN) in OSTP.

Methods:

SOSPAN items were aligned with existing OSTP policies. Reliability and validity data of SOSPAN were collected across 8 OSTP: 4 summer day camps and 4 afterschool programs. Validity of SOSPAN staff behaviors/management of PA was established using the percent of children active measured concurrently via direct observation.

Results:

A total of 6437 scans were performed. Interrater percent agreement ranged from 74%–99% across PAaN behaviors. Children’s activity was associated with staff facilitative behaviors/management, such as playing with the children and providing 2 or more activities for children to choose, while prohibitive behaviors/management, such as waiting in line were related to increased sedentary behavior. Staff nutrition behaviors were observed in less than 0.6% of scans.

Conclusion:

SOSPAN is a reliable and valid tool to assess staff behaviors/management of PAaN in OSTPs.