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Beth A. Cianfrone, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove and Alyssa L. Tavormina

& Crompton, 2004 ; Shapiro, DeSchriver, & Rascher, 2012 ). Many challenges arise when discussing ticket-sales strategies, including consideration of target market, price points, dynamic ticketing, group ticketing, advertising frequency, promotional or incentive options that create a value

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl

directly, but also indirectly by complicated pathways that involve multiple factors. Finally, health promotion is complex because it must consider the abovementioned factors collectively, and it involves political decisions at different levels of administration for allocation of public health resources

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

, private and voluntary entities that contribute to the delivery of essential public health services within a jurisdiction.” 10 Bringing groups together that represent the public health system in a specific community and organizing the group around a specific task, such as physical activity promotion, can

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

—postintervention 1 (3 mo after Stage 2); and Stage 4—postintervention 2 (6 mo after Stage 2). Proposed Interventions Because health promotion and disease prevention demand physi- cally active behavior, making recommendations regarding this behavior is currently seen as an extremely important practice in health

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Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Opal Vanessa Buchthal, Nicole Taniguchi, Livia Iskandar and Jay Maddock

Background:

Physical inactivity is a growing problem in the United States, one that is being addressed through the development of active living communities. However, active living promotion requires collaboration among organizations that may not have previously shared goals.

Methods:

A network analysis was conducted to assess Hawaii’s active living promotion network. Twenty-six organizations playing a significant role in promoting active living in Hawaii were identified and surveyed about their frequency of contact, level of collaboration, and funding flow with other agencies.

Results:

A communication network was identified linking all agencies. This network had many long pathways, impeding information flow. The Department of Health (DOH) and the State Nutrition and Physical Activity Coalition (NPAC) were central nodes, but DOH connected state agencies while NPAC linked county and voluntary organizations. Within the network, information sharing was common, but collaboration and formal partnership were low. Linkages between county and state agencies, between counties, and between state agencies with different core agendas were particularly low.

Conclusions:

Results suggest that in the early stages of development, active living networks may be divided by geography and core missions, requiring work to bridge these divides. Network mapping appears helpful in identifying areas for network development.

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R. Glenn Weaver, Michael W. Beets, Collin Webster and Jennifer Huberty

Background:

Frontline-staff are critical to achieving policies related to child physical activity and nutrition (PAaN) in out-of-school-time programs (OSTP). Recent policies call upon staff to demonstrate behaviors related to PAaN. Currently, no instrument exists to measure these behaviors. This study fills the gap between policy mandates and staff behaviors by describing the development of the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN) in OSTP.

Methods:

SOSPAN items were aligned with existing OSTP policies. Reliability and validity data of SOSPAN were collected across 8 OSTP: 4 summer day camps and 4 afterschool programs. Validity of SOSPAN staff behaviors/management of PA was established using the percent of children active measured concurrently via direct observation.

Results:

A total of 6437 scans were performed. Interrater percent agreement ranged from 74%–99% across PAaN behaviors. Children’s activity was associated with staff facilitative behaviors/management, such as playing with the children and providing 2 or more activities for children to choose, while prohibitive behaviors/management, such as waiting in line were related to increased sedentary behavior. Staff nutrition behaviors were observed in less than 0.6% of scans.

Conclusion:

SOSPAN is a reliable and valid tool to assess staff behaviors/management of PAaN in OSTPs.

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Janelle Joseph

experiences of men and gender relations? These are the questions Sarah Gee and Steve Jackson explore in their new text, Sport, Promotional Culture and the Crisis of Masculinity. The authors set the stage by reviewing sport as the “final frontier of masculinity” (p. 6). They note that masculinity endures

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Mark McDonald and Daniel Rascher

A primary objective of sport marketers in the professional sport setting is to develop strategies to increase game attendance. Historically, one of the strategies to accomplish this goal has been the utilization of special promotions. This paper studied the impact of promotions on attendance at professional sport games. Specifically, this research examines (a) the overall effect of promotions on attendance, and (b) the marginal impact on attendance of additional promotional days. Using a data set containing 1,500 observations, we find that a promotion increases single game attendance by about 14%. Additionally, increasing the number of promotions has a negative effect on the marginal impact of each promotion. The loss from this watering down effect, however, is outweighed by the gain from having an extra promotion day.