, instructors typically provide assistance on the performance of each step in the form of instructional prompts. Such “response prompts” are supplemental to and more informative than the natural performance cues that are available in an environment, at least at the outset of training. Natural cues are the
Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak, and Albert R. Cavalier
Greg Reid, Douglas Collier, and Michelle Cauchon
Visual, verbal, and physical prompting systems promote motor skill acquisition in learners who are autistic (Collier & Reid, 1987). The purpose of the present study was to contrast the effectiveness of two instructional models, one that emphasized visual prompting and one that stressed physical prompting. Both models were designed to teach autistic children a bowling skill that was subdivided into 19 task analytic steps. All four subjects received 120 trials under both instructional models in a counterbalanced fashion. It was hypothesized that physical prompting would be the most effective model, but only limited support was generated in this regard. The subjects did benefit from carefully designed instruction, however, thus replicating previous findings.
Ginny M. Frederick, Prabasaj Paul, Kathleen Bachtel Watson, Joan M. Dorn, and Janet Fulton
Point-of-decision prompts may be appropriate to promote walking, instead of using a mechanized mode of transport, such as a train, in airports. To our knowledge, no current studies describe the development of messages for prompts in this setting.
In-person interviews were conducted with 150 randomly selected airport travelers who rode the train to their departure gate. Travelers reported various reasons for riding the train to their gate. They were asked about messages that would encourage them to walk. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for reasons for riding the train. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for messages to encourage walking to the departure gate.
Travelers reported not knowing walking was an option (23.8%), seeing others riding the train (14.4%), and being afraid of getting lost (9.2%) as reasons for riding the train. Many indicated that directional signs and prompts promoting walking as exercise would encourage them to walk instead of riding the train.
Some reasons for riding the train in an airport may be modifiable by installing point-ofdecision prompts. Providing directional signs to travelers may prompt them to walk to their gate instead of riding the train. Similar prompts may also be considered in other community settings.
Iva Obrusnikova, Albert R. Cavalier, Richard R. Suminski, Ashleigh E. Blair, Cora J. Firkin, and Ashley M. Steinbrecher
. Because video prompting delivers instructional cues via a fluid auditory and visual mode, it also can increase participants’ motivation to engage in the intervention ( Bandura, 2004 ). Method Study Design and Hypotheses The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) flow diagram for this
Peter Hastie, Hans van der Mars, Todd Layne, and Danielle Wadsworth
This study examined the effectiveness of three conditions in which 48 fourth-grade students were prompted to be physically active out of school. Using an alternating treatments design (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) the three intervention conditions included: (a) Baseline: No prompting of students, (b) Teacher Prompts: Verbal prompt to “remember to do something active after school today”, and (c) Teacher Prompts and group-oriented contingencies: Verbal prompts with an index card where students could record their activity to earn bonus points as part of a team challenge. Graphically plotted pedometer data depicting data paths, variability, and trends within and across three conditions showed that students were more active outside of school only when the contingent reinforcement (c) was in place. This suggests that using prompts and group-oriented contingencies within Sport Education appears to be an effective and authentic context for promoting independent (i.e., free play) out-of-school time physical activity.
Dafna Merom, Heather Bowles, and Adrian Bauman
Walking is the most prevalent form of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Advances in measurement of walking depend on understanding sources of error in self report. We examined the effect of prompting “walking for exercise, recreation, and sport” (WERS) upon surveillance estimates of LTPA and assessed what types of walking were recalled when reporting LTPA generally and when WERS was prompted specifically.
Data were collected by telephone survey from a random sample of 3,415 Australian adults (≥15yrs). Respondents were asked first to recall any type of LTPA they participated in (unprompted) and if walking was not mentioned, WERS was prompted. All walkers were asked to describe the type of walking they did. Open-ended responses were categorized according to physical activity measurement dimensions.
Forty three percent did not report WERS unless prompted to do so. The prevalence of meeting recommendations by all LTPA was reduced by 10% for both genders and across all age groups if not prompted to recall WERS. The interpretation of WERS was broad and included travel related walking and dog walking whether unprompted or prompted.
Current challenges in walking surveillance include ensuring that both researchers and respondents understand WERS in a standardized manner.
Amanda Louise Lewis and Frank F. Eves
While point-of-choice prompts consistently increase stair climbing, experimental comparisons of message content are rare. Here, the effects of 2 messages differing in complexity about the health outcomes obtainable from stair climbing were compared.
In a UK train station with 2 independent platforms exited by identical 39-step staircases and adjacent escalators, observers recorded travelers ascent method and gender from 8:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. on 2 weekdays during February/March 2008 (n = 48,697). Baseline observations (2-weeks) preceded a 3-week poster phase. Two posters (594 × 841mm) that differed in the complexity of the message were positioned at the point-of-choice between ascent methods, with 1 placed on each side of the station simultaneously. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in April 2010.
Omnibus analysis contained main effects of the intervention (OR = 1.07, CI = 1.02–1.13, P = .01) and pedestrian traffic volume (OR = 5.42, CI = 3.05–9.62, P < .001). Similar effects occurred for complex (OR = 1.10, CI = 1.02–1.18, P = .01) and simple messages (OR = 1.07, CI = 1.01–1.13, P = .02) when analyses controlled for the influence of pedestrian traffic volume. There was reduced efficacy for the complex message during busier periods (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.20–0.66, P = .001), whereas the simple message was immune to these effects of traffic volume.
Pedestrian traffic flow in stations can influence message effectiveness. Simple messages appear more suitable for busy sites.
Leslee A. Fisher
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how case study methodology, an advocacy practice and policy model (APPM), and new directions in feminist theory can be utilized to educate coaches about sexual misconduct. Case studies are useful for both research and teaching purposes because they provide a potential framework for analyses of “real-world” problems. The APPM provides guidance on moving from analysis to action; in particular, advocacy is about education, negotiation, and persuasion. Feminist theorists push us to consider how the embodied experiences of female athletes and feminine subjectivities can unsettle and disrupt normative assumptions about the way that sport should be conducted. The case of Larry Nassar is utilized because of the amount of reporting available to analyze; this includes female athlete survivor voices. Having coaches wrestle with such questions as (a) Do I know the definitions of sexual misconduct? (b) Do I understand the warning signs a female athlete might be displaying if she is being abused by significant other in sport? (c) When do I have to report abuse to authorities? and (d) Do I know how to intervene on the athlete’s behalf? is important if we are to increase the likelihood of creating systemic change.
Andrew Hawkins, Tom Sharpe, and John Jewell
Ross E. Andersen, Adrian E. Bauman, Shawn C. Franckowiak, Sue M. Reilley, and Alison L. Marshall
This intervention promoted stair use among people attending the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) annual meeting.
All attendees using the stairs or escalators in the main lobby were unobtrusively observed for 3 days and coded for activity choices to get to the second floor. During day 2, a prominent sign stating “Be a role model. Use the stairs!” encouraged point-of-choice decisions favoring stairs over the escalator. The sign was removed on day 3.
16,978 observations were made. Stair use increased from 22.0% on day 1 to 29.3% and 26.8% on days 2 and 3, respectively (P values < .001). Active choices (stair use or walk up escalator) increased from 28.3% on day 1 to 40.1% and 40.2% on subsequent days. Analyses were similar after adjustment for gender, estimated age category, and race.
Relatively few conference attendees were persuaded to model stair-use behavior. Health professionals should be encouraged to be “active living” role models.