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Michael L. Naraine

blockchain in sport and to discuss the implications and value proposition of blockchain to the sport industry. In order for scholars and practitioners to assess the importance and impact of blockchain technology, it is imperative that they develop an understanding of what blockchain entails and how it

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Ralf Brand and Franziska Antoniewicz

Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the associative-propositional processes in evaluation model, we measured participants’ automatic evaluations of exercise and then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous 14 weeks could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one’s negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

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Frank C. Bakker, Marc S.J. Boschker, and Tjuling Chung

Investigating emotional imagery, Lang (1977, 1979) proposed a dichotomy between stimulus and response propositions. In this study, Lang’s model is applied to movement images of lifting of 4.5 and 9 kg weights. Twenty-two male and 17 female students participated in the study. During the imaginary lifting of the weights, the electromyographical activity (EMG) of both biceps brachii muscles were assessed. Imagery ability was measured with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) and another self-report rating scale. When response propositions were emphasized in the script, imaginary weight lifting resulted in greater muscle activity than when stimulus propositions were emphasized. During imagined lifting, EMG activity of the active arm was greater than that of the passive arm. In addition, in the active arm, a significant difference in EMG activity was found between 9 kg and 4.5 kg. It was concluded that Lang’s model is also applicable to emotionally neutral movement imagery.

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Antonio Solana-Sánchez, Sergio Lara-Bercial, and David Solana-Sánchez

Professional youth football (soccer) academies face a number of challenges related to the contrasting and at times competing nature of their goals. Marrying long-term development of players with success in youth competitions and combining the development of young people as athletes with their growth as human beings are some examples. Professional football clubs and those tasked with leading their academies have to make key decisions as to how these challenges will be addressed. In this paper we argue that those decisions must be made based on a clearly shared philosophy and accompanying set of values. We present some of the key principles governing the work of the Sevilla Club de Fútbol Youth Academy and the rationale behind them. These principles span from developmental, methodological and pedagogical choices to the building of an internal long-term approach to coach development.

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Karine Jacon Sarro, Amanda Piaia Silvatti, Andrea Aliverti, and Ricardo M. L. Barros

A novel method based on kinematical analysis is proposed to describe the three-dimensional motion of the ribs during breathing. The three-dimensional coordinates of markers on the ribs and vertebrae were used to calculate the orientation of the ribs as a function of time. A test measured the relative motion between the markers and the ribs using magnetic resonance and the results revealed that the skin motion artifact found for the ribs (absolute mean value 3.9 mm) would induce maximum errors of 4° on rib motion calculation. The method identified a signal coherent with the breathing cycle for the angles of the ribs around the mediolateral axis and was also able to show differences between healthy nonathletes and swimmers, which presented greater angular variation of the ribs (p < .05). In conclusion, this study has shown the reliability of using three-dimensional kinematic analysis to evaluate the movement of the ribs during breathing as well as its potential to identify differences in the behavior of the rib motion in trained swimmers and untrained healthy subjects.

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Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite

theory of sport markets that also accounts for these changes. One such theory is an ecosystem theory. An ecosystem is a set of interdependent actors whose activities create and support a common value proposition ( Adner, 2017 ). Since sport markets consist of many actors cooperating to create value and

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried, and Brian P. Soebbing

infractions including violation type, date, and number of occurrences) Secondary data  History/scholarly books 7 articles; date range: 1893–2016 Providing interpretation (e.g., impact of Proposition 48 on recruiting violations)  Academic articles 63 articles; date range: 1979–2016 Providing interpretation (e

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Kathryn L. Heinze and Di Lu

? Further, we develop propositions about the factors that may lead to shifts in powerful sport governing bodies’ responses to institutional change. This study advances institutional theory and sport management in several ways. First, by identifying shifts in how a sport governing body reacts to

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Karl M. Newell and Gareth Irwin

and stopping of the limb segments, as opposed to a follow-through motion. This potential list of the mediated control of directional change reveals that there is still much of the Bernstein ( 1967 ) propositions on coordination, control and the mastery of skill that remains unexamined ( Latash, 2012

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Dawn T. Gulick

to check for propositional bias. Finally, a power calculation was performed to determine the confidence in the data. Results The data analysis was performed with SPSS Statistics 23 software (IBM, Chicago, IL) and began with an intraclass correlation coefficient to measure the association of the