In this review, we highlight promising new discoveries that may generate useful and clinically relevant insights into the mechanisms that link exercise with growth during critical periods of development. Growth in childhood and adolescence is unique among mammals and is a dynamic process regulated by an evolution of hormonal and inflammatory mediators, age-dependent progression of gene expression, and environmentally modulated epigenetic mechanisms. Many of these same processes likely affect molecular transducers of physical activity. How the molecular signaling associated with growth is synchronized with signaling associated with exercise is poorly understood. Recent advances in “omics”—namely genomics and epigenetics, metabolomics, and proteomics—now provide exciting approaches and tools that can be used for the first time to address this gap. A biologic definition of “healthy” exercise that links the metabolic transducers of physical activity with parallel processes that regulate growth will transform health policy and guidelines that promote optimal use of physical activity.
Shlomit Radom-Aizik and Dan M. Cooper
. , Keyes , M.J. , Katz , D.H. , Beltran , P.M.J. , Barber , J.L. , Baumgartner , C. , Carr , S.A. , Ghosh , S. , Shen , C. , Jennings , L.L. , Ross , R. , Sarzynski , M.A. , Bouchard , C. , & Gerszten , R.E. ( 2021 ). Human plasma proteomic profiles indicative of
Andrew M. Holwerda, Freek G. Bouwman, Miranda Nabben, Ping Wang, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemie P. Gijsen, Jatin G. Burniston, Edwin C.M. Mariman, and Luc J.C. van Loon
QI for proteomics (Waters, Milford, MA) was used to perform label-free quantitation as described previously ( Bowden-Davies et al., 2015 ; Burniston et al., 2014 ; Camera et al., 2017 ; Sollanek et al., 2017 ). Log-transformed MS data were normalized by intersample abundance ratio, and relative
Marios Papaloucas, Kyriaki Kyriazi, and Vassilis Kouloulias
Nowadays, antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods to confirm the use of forbidden substances. These tests are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein, or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics, or metabolomics). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) officially monitors anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. However, several other substances are under review by WAdA. Pheromones accomplish the structure and function of life from its first step, while they have an impact on the body’s performance. Both testosterone and pheromones have an ergogenic effect that could potentially affect an athlete’s performance. The authors share their questions concerning the potential impact of pheromones in sports.
Jeffrey B. Driban, Easwaran Balasubramanian, Mamta Amin, Michael R. Sitler, Marvin C. Ziskin, and Mary F. Barbe
Joint trauma is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), which is becoming an increasingly important orthopedic concern for athletes and nonathletes alike. For advances in OA prevention, diagnosis, and treatment to occur, a greater understanding of the biochemical environment of the affected joint is needed.
To demonstrate the potential of a biochemical technique to enhance our understanding of and diagnostic capabilities for osteoarthritis.
Outpatient orthopedic practice.
8 subjects: 4 OA-knee participants (65 ± 6 y of age) and 4 normal-knee participants (54 ± 10 y) with no history of knee OA based on bilateral standing radiographs.
The independent variable was group (OA knee, normal knee).
Main Outcome Measures:
16 knee synovial-protein concentrations categorized as follows: 4 as pro-inflammatory, or catabolic, cytokines; 5 as anti-inflammatory, or protective, cytokines; 3 as catabolic enzymes; 2 as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]; and 2 as adipokines.
Two anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-13 and osteoprotegerin) and a pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β) were significantly lower in the OA knees. Two catabolic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2 and MMP-3) were significantly elevated in OA knees. TIMP-2, an inhibitor of MMPs, was significantly elevated in OA knees.
Six of the 16 synovial-fluid proteins were significantly different between OA knees and normal knees in this study. Future research using a similar multiplex ELISA approach or other proteomic techniques may enable researchers and clinicians to develop more accurate biochemical profiles of synovial fluid to help diagnose OA, identify subsets of OA or individual characteristics, guide clinical decisions, and identify patients at risk for OA after knee injury.
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Kayvan Khoramipour, Anis Chaouachi, and Karim Chamari
, anticoagulation, and iron. 5 Moreover, exercise modulates transcription patterns and epigenetics, as well as metabolic profiles. All these different omics specialties (like sport genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/metabonomics) converge in a unique approach termed as “sportomics
Gustavo Monnerat, Carlos A.R. Sánchez, Caleb G.M. Santos, Dailson Paulucio, Rodolfo Velasque, Geisa P.C. Evaristo, Joseph A.M. Evaristo, Fabio C.S. Nogueira, Gilberto B. Domont, Mauricio Serrato, Antonio S. Lima, David Bishop, Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho, and Fernando A.M.S. Pompeu
nutritional strategies. Genomics refers to the study of DNA sequences and genetic identity, while transcriptomics aims to quantify RNA variation, thus providing insights into gene regulation. In contrast, proteomics is used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the presence and expression levels of
Derek T. Smith, Tannah Broman, Marcus Rucker, Cecile Sende, and Sarah Banner
-behavior modification, geriatrics, pediatrics, genetics, proteomics, cell and molecular biology, neurophysiology, and, of course, pre–allied health professions. In many kinesiology departments, 60% or more of the student body may be pursuing careers in the medical and allied health professions (e
Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar
) hydroxylysine, (d) proline, (e) hydroxyproline, and (f) leucine in the blood was determined by high performance liquid chromotography by the UC Davis Proteomics Core. The data are presented as mean ± SD for the four subjects who completed the crossover study. The two-way analysis of variance (treatment and time
Bruno Ruiz Brandão da Costa, Rafaela Rocha Roiffé, and Márcia Nogueira da Silva de la Cruz
to WP-based supplements, is the origin of the protein content. Garrido et al. used a proteomic approach to analyze 16 different brands of WPs and reported that six samples presented high concentrations of protein sources other than bovines, especially soybean, wheat, and rice, which are cheaper