The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of concurrent verbal protocols to identify and map thought processes of players during a golf-putting task. Three novice golfers and three experienced golfers performed twenty 12-foot putts while thinking aloud. Verbalizations were transcribed verbatim and coded using an inductive method. Content analysis and event-sequence analysis were performed. Mapping of thought sequences indicated that experienced players’ cognitive processes centered on gathering information and planning, while beginners focused on technical aspects. Experienced players diagnosed current performance aspects more often than beginners did and were more likely to use this information to plan the next putt. These results are consistent with experienced players’ higher domain-specific knowledge and less reliance on step-by-step monitoring of motor performance than beginners. The methods used for recording, analyzing, and interpreting on-line thoughts of performers shed light on cognitive processes, which have implications for research.
Luis Calmeiro and Gershon Tenenbaum
Sue L. McPherson
This study examined how conceptual knowledge concerning batting preparation develops with playing experience and how this knowledge influences decision making during a simulated game situation. Twelve experts, their coach, and 12 novices viewed a half-inning of a videotaped collegiate baseball game and assumed the role of the fourth batter. Propositional-type analysis of subjects' think-aloud protocols revealed experts' conceptual representation of batting preparation enabled them to search through a highly restricted problem space, which facilitated the development of sophisticated condition-action rules used to solve the problem. Experts' rules were more tactical, refined, and associated compared to novices' rules. Experts were different from novices in what attributes were considered important to solving the problem. Experts generated self-regulatory strategies to update, check, and modify their predictions of pitcher characteristics. This study provides initial evidence of the nature of adult expert sport performers' conceptual knowledge underlying decision making in sport situations.
Daniel Santa Mina, Shabbir M.H. Alibhai, Andrew G. Matthew, Crissa L. Guglietti, Meysam Pirbaglou, John Trachtenberg and Paul Ritvo
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) has side effects that significantly impair health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Exercise ameliorates many side effects of ADT, but different modalities, particularly in the home-based setting, have not been well studied. In this study the authors randomly assigned 66 PCa survivors receiving ADT to 6 mo of home-based aerobic or resistance training. Psychosocial well-being and physical fitness were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 mo, and then 6 mo postintervention. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that fatigue and HRQOL were not significantly different between groups; however, in a per-protocol analysis the resistance-exercise training group demonstrated clinically significant improvements in HRQOL. Differential within-group effects on physical fitness were also observed at various time points. At all time points, the aerobic-training group engaged in significantly more physical activity than the resistance-training group, a finding that should be further examined given evidence-based guidelines for activity volume in cancer survivors.
Gershon Tenenbaum, Michael Lloyd, Grace Pretty and Yuri L. Hanin
A study was carried out to examine the ability of equestrians to accurately report precompetition emotions and thoughts across varying time delays (3,7, and 14 days) after competition. Forty male and female dressage riders were randomly divided into two equal groups: participants who watched their videotaped precompetition routine before responding to the items, and participants who visualized the precompetition routine without any external aid. Each rider completed several questionnaires which measured emotions, items related to horses, and an open-ended question on thoughts and emotions at that moment. After a delay of 3,7, and 14 days, the riders were asked to respond to the same questions after imagining themselves preparing for the competition. Repeated-measures MANOVA indicate that though some decrease in emotional intensity was noted for some emotions in the retrospective report, the stability of reporting precompetition emotions was very high in all delay periods. The horse related items were reported particularly accurately. Watching the videotape did not improve the accuracy of the report. Content analysis, however, indicated that when measurement consisted of free report, many emotions and thoughts were added or omitted in the delayed modes. Ericsson and Simon’s (1980, 1984) verbal reports and protocol analysis conceptualization is used to elaborate upon these results.
Aline Mendes Gerage, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Ana Célia Oliveira dos Santos, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de Souza and Fábio Araujo Almeida
< .05 versus preintervention. # P < .05 versus CG. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the results for quality of life were similar to those observed in the per-protocol analysis. Changes in Self-Efficacy and Social Support No group by time interaction was observed for self-efficacy and social support
Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang and Sang Chul Lee
higher improvement in the sling exercise with elastic bands group than in the traditional trunk muscle stabilizing exercise group, respectively ( P < .05, Table 4 ). Per-Protocol Analysis In the per-protocol analysis, 73 patients who completed final followed-up evaluation were included. There was a
Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope and Ben Schram
scanner performed each BC scan using the narrow angle fan beam DXA machine, and thereafter used the GE enCORE 2016 software (GE Healthcare) to analyze the data (Figure 1 ). Figure 1 —Nana positioning protocol analysis. Nana Body Composition Positioning Protocol During each scan, the Nana positioning
Amanda M. Rymal
.A. ( 1993 ). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data (Rev. ed.) . Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press . doi.apa.org Hars , M. , & Calmels , C. ( 2007 ). Observation of elite gymnastic performance: Processes and perceived functions of observation . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8 ( 3 ), 337 – 354
Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó and Nikos Comoutos
-directed self-talk might yield complementary insight to information obtained through the administration of psychometrics questionnaires. References Calmeiro , L. , & Tenenbaum , G. ( 2011 ). Concurrent verbal protocol analysis in sport: Illustration of thought processes during a golf-putting task
Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot
). Compliance Analyses Including Per-Protocol Analysis In addition to intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, compliance analyses were performed for dyads using GEE. First, we evaluated the outcomes of dyads who completed all of the homework assignments of practicing exercise and planning pleasant activities: 30 min