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Stephanie Mueller, Montse C. Ruiz, and Stiliani Ani Chroni

manifested in psychological (i.e., emotional, cognitive, motivational, volitional), biological (i.e., bodily, motor-behavioural), and social (i.e., operational, communicative) modalities ( Hanin, 2010 ; Ruiz, Hanin, & Robazza, 2016 ). Hanin ( 2000 ) defined psychobiosocial states as situational, multimodal

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Thierry R.F. Middleton, Montse C. Ruiz, and Claudio Robazza

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of music on swimmers’ preperformance psychobiosocial states. A purposeful sample of competitive swimmers (N = 17) participated in a 5-week intervention grounded in the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model. Findings showed that (a) preperformance psychobiosocial states differentiated between best and worst performances, (b) swimmers improved their ability to regulate preperformance states through the use of music, and (c) the use of music had a positive impact on swimmers’ perceived effectiveness of preperformance routines. Furthermore, swimmers’ qualitative reports indicated that music use was made more purposeful due to the introduction of a music intervention. The current study provides preliminary evidence in support of the use of music during preperformance routines as an effective tool to regulate athletes’ preperformance states. Athletes are encouraged to engage in the process of carefully selecting music in accordance with individualized profiles related to optimal performance states.

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Montse C. Ruiz, Yuri Hanin, and Claudio Robazza

In this investigation we describe an individualized approach in the assessment of athletes’ experiences associated with successful and poor performances. Two studies were conducted to develop a profiling procedure to assess eight modalities of performance-related states. In Study 1, six high-level athletes assessed their states before most successful and unsuccessful performances using a preliminary 71-item stimulus list developed by a panel of four emotion researchers. They also rated the intensity of their states on a modified Borg’s CR-10 scale. In Study 2, five top-level divers assessed their states before multiple dives (three successful and three unsuccessful) using a revised 74-item list. The perceived impact on performance was also examined using an open-ended question. Individual profiles reflected two typical curves discriminating successful and unsuccessful performances. High individual variability in item content and intensity was found. Athletes reported a wide range of interrelated experiences associated with their performances. Our findings support the practical utility of individualized profiling to assess athletes’ performance-related states.

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Eishin Teraoka, Heidi Jancer Ferreira, David Kirk, and Farid Bardid

(12 lessons) The lessons were videotaped and discussed with the researchers. Quantitative The task-involving intervention group had a significant increase in pleasant and functional psychobiosocial states and a significant reduction in unpleasant and dysfunctional psychobiosocial states compared with

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Sara Biondi, Cristiana Conti, Emmanouil Georgiadis, and Maurizio Bertollo

, predicting, explaining, and regulating performance-related psychobiosocial states affecting individual and team performance ( Ruiz et al., 2017 ). Psychobiosocial states are situational, multimodal, and dynamic manifestations of the total human functioning ( Robazza, 2006 ). They are described in terms of

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Jad Adrian Washif, Øyvind Sandbakk, Stephen Seiler, Thomas Haugen, Abdulaziz Farooq, Ken Quarrie, Dina C. Janse van Rensburg, Isabel Krug, Evert Verhagen, Del P. Wong, Iñigo Mujika, Cristina Cortis, Monoem Haddad, Omid Ahmadian, Mahmood Al Jufaili, Ramzi A. Al-Horani, Abdulla Saeed Al-Mohannadi, Asma Aloui, Achraf Ammar, Fitim Arifi, Abdul Rashid Aziz, Mikhail Batuev, Christopher Martyn Beaven, Ralph Beneke, Arben Bici, Pallawi Bishnoi, Lone Bogwasi, Daniel Bok, Omar Boukhris, Daniel Boullosa, Nicola Bragazzi, Joao Brito, Roxana Paola Palacios Cartagena, Anis Chaouachi, Stephen S. Cheung, Hamdi Chtourou, Germina Cosma, Tadej Debevec, Matthew D. DeLang, Alexandre Dellal, Gürhan Dönmez, Tarak Driss, Juan David Peña Duque, Cristiano Eirale, Mohamed Elloumi, Carl Foster, Emerson Franchini, Andrea Fusco, Olivier Galy, Paul B. Gastin, Nicholas Gill, Olivier Girard, Cvita Gregov, Shona Halson, Omar Hammouda, Ivana Hanzlíková, Bahar Hassanmirzaei, Kim Hébert-Losier, Hussein Muñoz Helú, Tomás Herrera-Valenzuela, Florentina J. Hettinga, Louis Holtzhausen, Olivier Hue, Antonio Dello Iacono, Johanna K. Ihalainen, Carl James, Saju Joseph, Karim Kamoun, Mehdi Khaled, Karim Khalladi, Kwang Joon Kim, Lian-Yee Kok, Lewis MacMillan, Leonardo Jose Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Ryo Matsunaga, Shpresa Memishi, Grégoire P. Millet, Imen Moussa-Chamari, Danladi Ibrahim Musa, Hoang Minh Thuan Nguyen, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Adam Owen, Johnny Padulo, Jeffrey Cabayan Pagaduan, Nirmala Panagodage Perera, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Lervasen Pillay, Arporn Popa, Avishkar Pudasaini, Alizera Rabbani, Tandiyo Rahayu, Mohamed Romdhani, Paul Salamh, Abu-Sufian Sarkar, Andy Schillinger, Heny Setyawati, Navina Shrestha, Fatona Suraya, Montassar Tabben, Khaled Trabelsi, Axel Urhausen, Maarit Valtonen, Johanna Weber, Rodney Whiteley, Adel Zrane, Yacine Zerguini, Piotr Zmijewski, Helmi Ben Saad, David B. Pyne, Lee Taylor, and Karim Chamari

, energy loss, and reduced motivation, according to one dataset. 6 Specifically, female athletes tended to be more anxious 18 and reported mood disruptions related to increased perceived stress and dysfunctional psychobiosocial states. 19 Furthermore, female athletes with underlying medical conditions

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Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum

regulation impact of cognitive and behavioral strategies on athletes’ emotional state (see Harmison, 2011 , for a review). For instance, a modified version of the IZOF was used to examine the impact of listening to music on swimmers’ preperformance psychobiosocial states. Results revealed that purposefully

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Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza, and Michael Kellmann

. Measuring psychobiosocial states in sport: initial validation of a trait measure . PLoS ONE . 2016 ; 11 : e0167448 . PubMed ID: 27907111 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167448 27907111 10.1371/journal.pone.0167448

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Lindsey E. Slavin, Tess M. Palmateer, Trent A. Petrie, and E. Whitney G. Moore

. , Robazza , C. , & Bertollo , M. ( 2020 ). The effects of COVID-19 pandemic on perceived stress and psychobiosocial states in Italian athletes . International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1802612 10.1080/1612197X.2020

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Inge Milius, Wade D. Gilbert, Danielle Alexander, and Gordon A. Bloom

, R. Groom , & P. Potrac (Eds.), Research methods in sports coaching (pp.  123 – 131 ). London : Routledge . 10.4324/9780203797549-12 Mueller , S. , Ruiz , M.C. , & Chroni , S.A. ( 2018 ). Coaches’ perceptions of athletes’ psychobiosocial states: The case of three tennis coach