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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

, no known studies have investigated the functional outcomes and psychological benefits of AVG concurrently with currently injured athletes. Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe the functional outcomes and psychological benefits of using AVG in the rehabilitation of acute LAS. Methods Design

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Chih-Hung Chen, Ming-Chang Jeng, Chin-Ping Fung, Ji-Liang Doong and Tien-Yow Chuang

Context:

Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined.

Objective:

To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation.

Design:

An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment.

Setting:

Hospital laboratory.

Patients:

30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury.

Intervention:

A designed rehabilitation therapy.

Main Outcome Measures:

Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation–Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire.

Results:

The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension.

Conclusion:

A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.

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Harry Prapavessis and Albert V. Carron

One purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cohesion and competitive state anxiety (A-state). If a cohesion-competition A-state relationship was obtained, the second purpose was to determine whether the perceived psychological benefits and/or psychological costs of cohesiveness mediate that relationship. In order to examine these issues, a sample of interactive sport-team athletes (N = 110) completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) and items related to the perceived psychological benefits and costs of membership in cohesive groups. In addition, athletes completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory–2 (CSAI-2; Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) prior to competition. Results showed that cohesion was related to A-state responses (p < .004). Specifically, individuals holding higher perceptions of task cohesion reported less cognitive A-state. Results also showed that psychological costs associated with membership on cohesive teams mediates the cohesion–A-state relationship.

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Rylee Dionigi

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived psychological benefits and explore the mechanisms underlying the link between exercise and psychological well-being for a group of older adults (65-72 years; 6 women; 4 men) who participated in a 12-week program of moderate-to-high intensity resistance training. They were interviewed in-depth at 1 week preintervention, 1 month after commencement, and 1 week after completion. The participants believed that resistance training enhanced their well-being, and they gave various physical, mental, and social reasons to explain this link. In particular, self-efficacy and social interaction were found to be key mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study exposed meaningful perceived improvements in psychological well-being that have not been uncovered in quantitative studies of healthy older people undertaking resistance training. The findings highlight the importance of using qualitative methods to enrich understandings of the positive effect of exercise on psychological well-being. The findings also have implications for designing effective resistance training interventions for older people.

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Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits: A Position Statement

International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP)

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Bernardine M. Pinto, Bess H. Marcus, Robert B. Patterson, Mary Roberts, Andrea Colucci and Christina Braun

Exercise has been shown to improve walking ability in individuals with arterial claudication. This study compared the effects of an on-site supervised exercise program and a home exercise program on quality of life and psychological outcomes in these individuals. Sixty individuals were randomly assigned to a 12-week on-site or a 12-week home-based exercise program. Quality of life, mood and pain symptoms, and walking ability were examined at baseline, posttreatment, and at 6 months follow-up. Individuals in the on-site exercise program showed significantly greater improvements in walking ability. Although sample size limited the ability to detect significant differences between groups on quality of life and psychological measures, both groups were comparable on improvements in quality of life and in mood. These data suggest that a home exercise program with weekly feedback may provide improved quality of life and mood benefits for individuals with arterial claudication but does not provide improvements in walking equivalent to those provided by an on-site exercise program.

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Elizabeth E. Turner, W. Jack Rejeski and Lawrence R. Brawley

This investigation examined the influence of leadership behavior on exercise- induced feeling states and self-efficacy beliefs following an acute bout of physical activity. Forty-six college-aged women participated in a single session of physical activity that involved either socially enriched or bland social interactions by an activity leader. Participants completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) and self-efficacy measures prior to and 10 min following the experimental treatments. The results revealed that those in the enriched condition reported greater increases in Revitalization. There was a similar trend for the Positive Engagement subscale, and those in the enriched condition reported much larger increases in self-efficacy. There was no evidence that self-efficacy was related to the change seen in EFI responses; however, enjoyment of the instructors’ approach to the class was related to residualized change scores for both Revitalization and Positive Engagement.

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John B. Nezlek, Marzena Cypryańska, Piotr Cypryański, Karolina Chlebosz, Karolina Jenczylik, Joanna Sztachańska and Anna M. Zalewska

complement and extend existing research on the psychological benefits of exercise. Using a weekly diary, we found positive within-person relationships between how much people ran each week and self-reports of well-being. Although we were not able to demonstrate with certainty that running led to well

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Rachel Cholerton, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt and Helen Quirk

, 2018 ). Despite declining levels of older adults meeting recommended levels of PA, research highlights multiple physiological and psychological benefits to taking part in PA in older adulthood, such as lower risk of cardiovascular disease and increased memory performance ( Chapman et al., 2013

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Erica Berman, Mary Jane De Souza and Gretchen Kerr

This study employed the method of qualitative exploration to examine the relationships between body image, exercise and eating behaviors. It also addressed a controversial question in the literature: Do weight and appearance concerns motivate physical activity participation or does participation in physical activity exacerbate weight and appearance concerns? Seven female recreational exercisers (ages 23 to 35) were interviewed about weight and appearance concerns, eating and exercise behaviors. All but one reported past or present disordered eating behaviors. While all of the women cited numerous physical and psychological benefits from physical activity, weight and appearance concerns were important motivators to exercise. For all participants, weight and appearance concerns as well as disordered eating problems led to the adoption of recreational fitness activities and not the reverse.