managers of sports clubs take only simple marketing steps to reach the loyal customer without considering the process through which loyalty develops ( Taghizadeh, Ghorbani, & Behnam, 2015 ). Based on the psychological continuum model (PCM; Funk & James, 2001 , 2006 ), consumer loyalty rests upon
Mohsen Behnam, Mikihiro Sato, Bradley J. Baker, Vahid Delshab, and Mathieu Winand
Jonathan M. Casper and Jung-Hwan Jeon
commitment and psychological connection. An example is the psychological continuum model (PCM) theorized by Funk ( 2008 ) and Funk and James ( 2001 ). Based on the Hierarchy of Effects Theory ( Palda, 1966 ) and the Escalating Commitment Theory ( Staw, 1981 ), the PCM examines an individual’s movement from a
Kevin Filo, Daniel C. Funk, and Danny O’Brien
Charity sport events have emerged as widespread and integral fundraising mechanisms for charitable organizations. This article explores the meaning that charity sport events hold in participants’ lives. Using the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) as the theoretical framework, the authors examine participant attachment to charity sport events. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants in a charity sport event (N = 32) to discuss their perceptions of the event and their overall event experiences. Results revealed that camaraderie, cause, and competency reflect the enhanced meaning of the event and provide further explanation of attachment. Suggestions are made for charitable organizations and host communities to leverage these factors effectively and develop long-term sustainable events, and to assist in recruiting volunteers and facilitating social change in host communities.
Kevin Filo, Daniel C. Funk, and Glen Hornby
Sport event tourism is a major component of sport related tourism in many countries. Sport event organizations should strive to develop Internet marketing communication that features event information relevant to potential sport tourists. Using the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) as its theoretical framework, this article presents two studies examining information requirements for sport event Web sites and evaluating the impact of Web site communications on consumer motivation and attitudes toward the event. Study 1 first used an open-ended response listing exercise to identify 15 information themes that should be accessible on a sport event Web site (N = 54) and then demonstrated in a between-subjects experimental design that providing these information themes increased satisfaction with the Web site (N = 40). Study 2 used a within-subjects experimental design to reveal that provision of these information themes had no impact on travel motives, but did increase favorable attitudes toward a sport event and intention to attend the event (N = 39). This research provides evidence that Web site marketing communication does activate attitude change within consumers, as well as empirical support for attitude change within the PCM framework. Findings highlight the potential strategic use of Web site communication for sport event organizers to enhance consumer attitudes toward the event and increase attendance.
Kevin Filo, Daniel Funk, and Danny O’Brien
Sport events benefiting a charitable cause have emerged as meaningful experiences for participants. These charity sport events may allow event sponsors to shape perceptions of corporate image among event participants. Using the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) as the theoretical framework, the factors that contribute to participants’ perceptions of event sponsors are examined. The influence of this image of event sponsors on behavioral outcomes among participants is also investigated. A post-event questionnaire was administered to participants in a sport event (N = 672) to investigate the relationships among motives, sponsor image, event attachment, purchase intent, and future participation intent. Results reveal that recreation and charity motives contribute to event attachment, while charity motives and event attachment contribute to sponsor image. Significantly, sponsor image and attachment contribute to purchase intent for event sponsors’ products. Finally, sponsor image does not influence future participation intent, while event attachment does. The results illustrate the discrete roles that sponsor image and attachment play in sport consumption activities. Suggestions are made for the strategic selection and marketing of events by potential sponsors to most effectively leverage event sponsorship opportunities.
Daniel C. Funk
mainstream disciplines ( Galvez, 2017 ). A case study of one idea originating in a sport management journal is used as an example of how an idea spread through different journal outlets over time. Psychological Continuum Model (PCM): Case Study The article used for this case study is the PCM originally
Jeffrey D. James
broadly in three groupings. One grouping includes work associated with the Psychological Continuum Model ( Funk & James, 2001 , 2006 ). A second grouping includes work associated with the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption ( Trail & James, 2001 ). The third grouping includes work associated with
Armand A. Buzzelli and Jason A. Draper
activity and psychological well-being. Application of the psychological continuum model was used to categorize players into four distinct connection levels: awareness, attraction, attachment, and allegiance. Among participants with the highest psychological continuum model levels, competition and skill
Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan, and Daniel C. Funk
correlates of the observed change. Participants of a distance-running event were the focus of the study due to its popularity as a population-based organized sport opportunity ( Running USA, 2018 ). Literature Review Psychological Continuum Model The psychological continuum model (PCM: Funk & James, 2001
Adam Karg, Heath McDonald, and Civilai Leckie
and James’ ( 2001 ) Psychological Continuum Model, have moved away from defining loyalty in terms of specific behaviors, but still have a strong bias toward “experiential,” underpinning higher levels of engagement. If fans in the current era are able to reach high levels of engagement (i.e., what Funk