Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents’ perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2. Here, a three-factor nine-item measure showed good fit to the data. In Study 3, responses from an independent sample of 373 adolescents provided further evidence for the nine-item solution as well as for internal consistency, criterion validity, and invariance across gender and social agent (friends, family, and physical education teacher). The APNSEQ was supported as a measure of adolescents’ perceptions of psychological need support within the context of exercise.
Lydia G. Emm-Collison, Martyn Standage and Fiona B. Gillison
Ian M. Taylor, Christopher M. Spray and Natalie Pearson
The purpose of the study was to explore change in children’s physical self-concept and self-reported physical activity over a school transition period, as well as motivational and interpersonal influences on these two outcomes. Data were collected from 545 children (mean age = 10.82, SD = 0.39, 51% female) at three time points before and after the United Kingdom secondary school transition. Multilevel modeling revealed that physical self-concept and physical activity showed different patterns of decline over the course of the study. Changes in the extent to which physical education teachers were perceived to provide psychological need support, peer focus on self-referenced learning and mastery, and changes in autonomous motives toward physical education classes were positively associated with these outcome variables. The present study provides novel insight into important motivational and interpersonal factors that may need to be targeted to prevent negative developmental patterns over a potentially challenging period for children.
Justine B. Allen and Sally Shaw
Researchers have argued that coaches are performers in their own right and that their psychological needs should be considered (Giges, Petitpas, & Vernacchia, 2004; Gould, Greenleaf, Guinan, & Chung, 2002). The purpose of this research was to examine high performance women coaches’ perceptions of their sport organizations’ social context, with specific attention to psychological need support. Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2002) was employed to frame the examination of the coaches’ experiences. Eight high performance women coaches from two sport organizations participated in semistructured interviews. All reported autonomy and competence development opportunities. Organizational relatedness was critical to the experience of a supportive environment. The findings provide insight into the “world of coaching” from the coaches’ perspective.
DIGEST VOLUME 6, ISSUE #1
completed three questionnaires reporting on their perception of basic psychological need support, basic need satisfaction as well as their developmental experiences and outcomes. A two-step cluster analysis based on total PQAYS revealed two distinct groups of programs (low quality = 16, high quality = 8
Angus A. Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J. Smith, Charles H. Hillman, Philip J. Morgan, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A. Costigan, Michael Noetel and David R. Lubans
exercise because it’s fun”) regulations. Responses are scored on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (not true for me) to 4 (very true for me). Basic psychological needs satisfaction was assessed using the “Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire” ( 15 ). Items refer to need satisfaction
Lindley McDavid, Meghan H. McDonough, Bonnie T. Blankenship and James M. LeBreton
theory, where greater use of psychological need supporting behaviors leads to improved perceptions of need satisfaction and well-being in youth ( Cheon et al., 2012 ; Deci & Ryan, 2000 ) and extends the research by implementing a training program that targets the use of all three interpersonal behaviors
Andre Koka and Heino Sildala
need support on amotivation in physical education . European Physical Education Review, 22 , 99 – 112 . doi:10.1177/1356336X15591341 10.1177/1356336X15591341 Johnson , T.G. , Prusak , K.A. , Pennington , T. , & Wilkinson , C. ( 2011 ). The effects of the type of skill test, choice, and