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Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum and Chung Wah Yu

investigating the relationship between mindfulness and attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD. The Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction It is important to understand the underlying process between mindfulness and attitudes toward students with ASD. One possible and promising approach is

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston and Kyle F. Paradis

obsessive passion (α = .84). The current study also yielded adequate internal consistency scores for harmonious passion (α = .79) and obsessive passion (α = .91). Basic psychological needs Basic psychological need satisfaction was assessed by the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale

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Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas and Guillaume Martinent

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal profiles of sport motivation using a 3-wave design (beginning, middle, and end of the season) among a sample of 736 adolescent athletes involved in intensive training centers. The authors explored whether several subgroups of athletes representing distinct motivation profiles emerged from the analyses and whether athletes reporting various scores of satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs (BPNS and BPNT) at time 1 (T1) belonged to distinct motivational profiles at T1, T2, and T3. Results of latent profile transition analyses showed 4 different profiles: highly self-determined, self-determined, moderate autonomous and controlled motivation, moderately self-determined (T1 and T2), and high autonomous and controlled motivation (T3) profiles. Moreover, the likelihood of belonging to particular profiles was significantly predicted by athletes’ BPNS and BPNT scores assessed at T1. Thus, a motivational profile approach may prove useful in understanding sport motivation as a dynamic system.

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Lindsay E. Kipp, Nicole D. Bolter and Alison Phillips Reichter

mastery climate dimensions will report higher psychological needs satisfaction, higher self-esteem, and lower disordered eating. Past research also shows that perceived sport competence, perceived physical appearance, and self-esteem decrease across adolescence for girls, due in part to physical changes

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Benjamin D. Sylvester, Martyn Standage, Tavinder K. Ark, Shane N. Sweet, Peter R.E. Crocker, Bruno D. Zumbo and Mark R. Beauchamp

In this study, we examined whether perceived variety in exercise prospectively predicts unique variance in exercise behavior when examined alongside satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (for competence, relatedness, and autonomy) embedded within self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), through the mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation. A convenience sample of community adults (N = 363) completed online questionnaires twice over a 6-week period. The results of structural equation modeling showed perceived variety and satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness to be unique indirect positive predictors of exercise behavior (through autonomous motivation) 6 weeks later. In addition, satisfaction of the need for autonomy was found to negatively predict controlled motivation. Perceived variety in exercise complemented satisfaction of the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in predicting motivation and (indirectly) exercise behavior, and may act as a salient mechanism in the prediction of autonomous motivation and behavior in exercise settings.

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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

, assessing its effects on students’ responsibility, motivation, basic psychological needs satisfaction, sportsmanship, and intention to be physically active outside school. The first hypothesis was that teachers, after a TPSR training program, would teach responsibility to their students more than Direct

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

(grades 7–9) from 56 classes of 13 government or government-aided secondary schools were invited to answer a set of questionnaires that included the Perceived Locus of Causality scale (PLOC), the Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale in Physical Education (PNSSPE), the Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale

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Weiyun Chen and Andrew J. Hypnar

Motivations for and positive attitudes toward physical activity (PA) developed during childhood are likely to be carried over to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between three psychological needs satisfaction, motivational regulations in physical education (PE), and attitudes toward participation in leisure-time PA among upper elementary school students. One thousand and seventy-three students in grades 3-5 anonymously and voluntarily completed three measures, including Psychological Needs Satisfaction, Motivational Regulations, and Attitudes, which were modified from previous works and judged by a panel of experts to ensure the wording of each item was understandable for upper elementary school students. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, composite reliability coefficient, and multilevel confirmatory factor analysis methods. The results indicated that the composite reliability coefficients of the measures were above .60, ranging from .62 to .79. The results of structural equation model indicated that satisfactions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness were significantly instrumental to the enhancement of autonomous motivation in PE settings and attitudes toward PA participation. Elementary school students’ having fun, obtaining benefits, and being with friends were all major motivational factors contributing to positive attitudes toward PA outside of school.

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John W. Mahoney, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Nikos Ntoumanis and Cliff J. Mallet

We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M age = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.

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Lindley McDavid, Meghan H. McDonough, Bonnie T. Blankenship and James M. LeBreton

encounters in PYD contexts maximize the use of autonomy support, involvement, and structure, and minimize coercion, hostility, and chaos to support well-being in youth. The pathways between social interactions, psychological needs satisfaction, and well-being described in basic psychological needs theory