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Chu-Min Liao and Richard S.W. Masters

Although it has often been implied that self-focused attention plays a mediating role in performance degradation under stress, the assumption that stress will evoke self-focus has received limited empirical support. Two studies were carried out to explore this relationship. The first study, using a time-to-event paradigm, showed that a higher level of self-focused attention accompanied increased anxiety levels in the buildup to competition. In the second study, basketball novices who were instructed to focus on the mechanics of the ball-shooting process during practice suffered a significant performance decrement in a subsequent stressful test phase, whereas those who were required only to do their best during practice showed no degradation in performance. It was concluded that self-focused attention may increase in response to psychological stress, and that the negative effect of self-focused attention on performance under stress is likely to be magnified by learning the skill under a high degree of self-focused attention, which can result in an overawareness of the performance process.

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J.D. DeFreese, Michael J. Baum, Julianne D. Schmidt, Benjamin M. Goerger, Nikki Barczak, Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Jason P. Mihalik

worthy of empirical consideration within baseline concussion testing protocols is psychological stress. Psychological stress is a maladaptive experience characterized by a perceived imbalance of situational demands and individual resources to manage or cope with these demands. 15 The transactional

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Amanda E. Paluch, Robin P. Shook, Gregory A. Hand, Daniel P. O’Connor, Sara Wilcox, Clemens Drenowatz, Meghan Baruth, Stephanie Burgess and Steven N. Blair

Background: This study examined how life event occurrences and stressfulness influence objectively measured light through vigorous physical activity (PA) among young adults. Methods: Every 3 months over a 12-month period, 404 healthy young adults completed questionnaires on the occurrence and stress of 16 life events and wore an accelerometer for 10 days. Results: A modest positive relationship was seen between cumulative life event occurrences [between effect: β = 22.2 (9.7) min/d, P = .02] and cumulative stress [between effect: β = 7.6 (2.9) min/d, P = .01] with light through vigorous PA among men. When considering events individually, job change, starting a first job, beginning a mortgage, and changes in a relationship influenced men’s PA. For women, mortgage, starting a first job, job change, and engagement had significant associations. Life event stressfulness influenced PA in women more than in men. For men, stress from changes in a relationship or job positively influenced PA. Stress of a mortgage, quitting a job, changing jobs or a first job influenced women’s PA. Conclusion: Considering each life event individually was more informative than the summation of life events or summation of stress. Specific life events substantially altered PA, and this change varied by gender, direction of association, and PA intensity and duration.

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Raquel Escobar-Molina, Sonia Rodríguez-Ruiz, Carlos Gutiérrez-García and Emerson Franchini

Purpose:

This study aimed at comparing weight loss methods (WLM) performed near competition by elite judo athletes from different age and gender groups and relating WLM with the prevalence of eating disorders.

Methods:

144 athletes (66 females and 78 males) from the Spanish judo teams participated in this observational descriptive study grouped into cadets, juniors, and seniors. Data were collected during previous training meetings to international tournaments. The used tools are a basic data questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T), Restraint Scale (RS), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). Two-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests were used to compare groups.

Results:

Seniors presented higher use of WLM, especially one week before competition compared with juniors. Judoists were more involved in their diets and reduced more weight as they were older. Females were more concerned about their diets, presented higher anxiety, scored higher in the emotion scale, and more eating disorders symptoms, although weight loss was lower. Anxiety and eating disorders symptoms differences were more common in juniors and cadets, respectively, with higher scores in females.

Conclusions and Implications:

Seniors seem to develop more effective strategies to cope with weight loss. Cadet and junior females are more likely to suffer from the psychological-related states associated to weight loss. Implications: (1) Educational programs might help competitors and coaches to adopt and promote healthier weight loss processes, (2) special attention should be paid to female young judoists to detect eating disorders in its early stages, and (3) judo organizations should consider implementing new rules to sanction harmful weight loss practices.

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Susanna Kola-Palmer, Samantha Buckley, Gabrielle Kingston, Jonathan Stephen, Alison Rodriguez, Nicole Sherretts and Kiara Lewis

current study is concerned with the extent to which psychological stress influences mental health, rather than exploring the influence of specific stressors. Stress is a known risk factor for depression (e.g.,  Kessler, 1997 ), and excessive psychological stress might influence the wellbeing ( Neil

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Edmund O. Acevedo and Aaron L. Slusher

The relationship between stress and disease, in particular cardiovascular disease, has long been recognized, whereas the study of the physiological mechanisms that explain this link has only more recently received attention. The acute response to stress is generally thought to be a critically important adaptation designed to activate the system in preparation to cope with the stressor. However, prolonged stimulation of the system (acute and chronic) can lead to deleterious adaptations including the release of inflammatory cytokines (small proteins important in cell signaling) that play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Scientists have therefore used a breadth of protocols and methods to identify the complexity of our fight-or-flight response and demonstrate the synergy between perception, the stress response, physical activity, and health. In addition, the critical assessment of cellular health, the gut microbiome, and genetic polymorphisms have further advanced our understanding of additional therapeutic targets against CVD.

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Claire-Marie Roberts

combination of emotional and psychological stress (e.g., Powell et al., 2000 ) and high-intensity exercise (e.g., Rundell & Spiering, 2003 ), my own research highlighted that there are other possible precursors. These include laryngeal irritants such as cleaning chemicals, smoke, tile dust, gaseous fumes

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

and psychological stressors, immune and stress salivary biomarkers may assist in monitoring athletic responses to training and competition demands. 4 TL monitoring can be used to measure the individual training stress for each athlete using physiological and psychological variables to ensure

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

lowest training load (ie, training impulse; TRIMP) for each week (ie, 4 d of samples per participant) to appropriately characterize the subject’s load and response range each week. Recovery-Stress Questionnaire Affective psychological stress was measured by the 52-question Recovery-Stress Questionnaire

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Kami N. Thews, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kirsten A. Potts and Kenneth E. Games

Firefighters are exposed to psychological stress while on duty that could lead to mental and behavioral illnesses that may go unreported. We surveyed firefighters to identify their perceived barriers encountered when attempting to report a mental and behavioral illness with a follow-up question related to how difficult the selected barrier was in the reporting process. A total of 314 firefighters completed the instrument, with most indicating they experienced cultural barriers such as social norms from administration and peers. The findings demonstrate an overall demand for a cultural change within the fire service for a supportive environment that encourages reporting.