Although it has often been implied that self-focused attention plays a mediating role in performance degradation under stress, the assumption that stress will evoke self-focus has received limited empirical support. Two studies were carried out to explore this relationship. The first study, using a time-to-event paradigm, showed that a higher level of self-focused attention accompanied increased anxiety levels in the buildup to competition. In the second study, basketball novices who were instructed to focus on the mechanics of the ball-shooting process during practice suffered a significant performance decrement in a subsequent stressful test phase, whereas those who were required only to do their best during practice showed no degradation in performance. It was concluded that self-focused attention may increase in response to psychological stress, and that the negative effect of self-focused attention on performance under stress is likely to be magnified by learning the skill under a high degree of self-focused attention, which can result in an overawareness of the performance process.
Chu-Min Liao and Richard S.W. Masters
J.D. DeFreese, Michael J. Baum, Julianne D. Schmidt, Benjamin M. Goerger, Nikki Barczak, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, and Jason P. Mihalik
worthy of empirical consideration within baseline concussion testing protocols is psychological stress. Psychological stress is a maladaptive experience characterized by a perceived imbalance of situational demands and individual resources to manage or cope with these demands. 15 The transactional
J.D. DeFreese, Samuel R. Walton, Avinash Chandran, and Zachary Y. Kerr
, including feeling overwhelmed, sleep difficulties, lack of access to nutrition and mental health support, lack of motivation to train, and fear of COVID-19 exposure. Similar stressors most likely exist among athletes at other levels of competition as well. Elevated psychological stress can also exacerbate
Amanda E. Paluch, Robin P. Shook, Gregory A. Hand, Daniel P. O’Connor, Sara Wilcox, Clemens Drenowatz, Meghan Baruth, Stephanie Burgess, and Steven N. Blair
Background: This study examined how life event occurrences and stressfulness influence objectively measured light through vigorous physical activity (PA) among young adults. Methods: Every 3 months over a 12-month period, 404 healthy young adults completed questionnaires on the occurrence and stress of 16 life events and wore an accelerometer for 10 days. Results: A modest positive relationship was seen between cumulative life event occurrences [between effect: β = 22.2 (9.7) min/d, P = .02] and cumulative stress [between effect: β = 7.6 (2.9) min/d, P = .01] with light through vigorous PA among men. When considering events individually, job change, starting a first job, beginning a mortgage, and changes in a relationship influenced men’s PA. For women, mortgage, starting a first job, job change, and engagement had significant associations. Life event stressfulness influenced PA in women more than in men. For men, stress from changes in a relationship or job positively influenced PA. Stress of a mortgage, quitting a job, changing jobs or a first job influenced women’s PA. Conclusion: Considering each life event individually was more informative than the summation of life events or summation of stress. Specific life events substantially altered PA, and this change varied by gender, direction of association, and PA intensity and duration.
Raquel Escobar-Molina, Sonia Rodríguez-Ruiz, Carlos Gutiérrez-García, and Emerson Franchini
This study aimed at comparing weight loss methods (WLM) performed near competition by elite judo athletes from different age and gender groups and relating WLM with the prevalence of eating disorders.
144 athletes (66 females and 78 males) from the Spanish judo teams participated in this observational descriptive study grouped into cadets, juniors, and seniors. Data were collected during previous training meetings to international tournaments. The used tools are a basic data questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T), Restraint Scale (RS), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). Two-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests were used to compare groups.
Seniors presented higher use of WLM, especially one week before competition compared with juniors. Judoists were more involved in their diets and reduced more weight as they were older. Females were more concerned about their diets, presented higher anxiety, scored higher in the emotion scale, and more eating disorders symptoms, although weight loss was lower. Anxiety and eating disorders symptoms differences were more common in juniors and cadets, respectively, with higher scores in females.
Conclusions and Implications:
Seniors seem to develop more effective strategies to cope with weight loss. Cadet and junior females are more likely to suffer from the psychological-related states associated to weight loss. Implications: (1) Educational programs might help competitors and coaches to adopt and promote healthier weight loss processes, (2) special attention should be paid to female young judoists to detect eating disorders in its early stages, and (3) judo organizations should consider implementing new rules to sanction harmful weight loss practices.
Susanna Kola-Palmer, Samantha Buckley, Gabrielle Kingston, Jonathan Stephen, Alison Rodriguez, Nicole Sherretts, and Kiara Lewis
current study is concerned with the extent to which psychological stress influences mental health, rather than exploring the influence of specific stressors. Stress is a known risk factor for depression (e.g., Kessler, 1997 ), and excessive psychological stress might influence the wellbeing ( Neil
Edmund O. Acevedo and Aaron L. Slusher
The relationship between stress and disease, in particular cardiovascular disease, has long been recognized, whereas the study of the physiological mechanisms that explain this link has only more recently received attention. The acute response to stress is generally thought to be a critically important adaptation designed to activate the system in preparation to cope with the stressor. However, prolonged stimulation of the system (acute and chronic) can lead to deleterious adaptations including the release of inflammatory cytokines (small proteins important in cell signaling) that play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Scientists have therefore used a breadth of protocols and methods to identify the complexity of our fight-or-flight response and demonstrate the synergy between perception, the stress response, physical activity, and health. In addition, the critical assessment of cellular health, the gut microbiome, and genetic polymorphisms have further advanced our understanding of additional therapeutic targets against CVD.
Genevieve F. Dunton, Daniel Chu, Christine H. Naya, Britni R. Belcher, and Tyler B. Mason
sedentary behavior. 13 Individuals are thought to experience psychological stress when perceived demands surpass personal and social resources to meet those demands. Mid to late childhood (ie, aged 8–12 y) is thought to be a period of increasing psychological stress as children deal with growing autonomy
combination of emotional and psychological stress (e.g., Powell et al., 2000 ) and high-intensity exercise (e.g., Rundell & Spiering, 2003 ), my own research highlighted that there are other possible precursors. These include laryngeal irritants such as cleaning chemicals, smoke, tile dust, gaseous fumes
Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill, and Giles D. Warrington
and psychological stressors, immune and stress salivary biomarkers may assist in monitoring athletic responses to training and competition demands. 4 TL monitoring can be used to measure the individual training stress for each athlete using physiological and psychological variables to ensure