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Genevieve F. Dunton, Michael Cousineau and Kim D. Reynolds

Background:

Policy strategies aimed at modifying aspects of the social, physical, economic, and educational environments have been proposed as potential solutions to the growing problem of physical inactivity. To develop effective physical activity policies in these and other areas, greater understanding of how and why policies successfully impact behavior change is needed.

Methods:

The current paper proposes a conceptual framework explaining how policy strategies map onto health behavior theoretical variables and processes thought to lead to physical activity change. This framework is used to make hypotheses about the potential effectiveness of different policy strategies.

Results:

Health behavior theories suggest that policies providing information may be particularly useful for individuals who are not yet considering or have only recently begun to consider becoming more physically active. Policies that provide opportunities may be less effective for individuals who do not find physical activity to be inherently fun and interesting. Policies that offer incentives or require the behavior may not be particularly useful at promoting long-term changes in physical activity.

Conclusion:

Exploring possible connections between policy strategies and theoretical constructs can help to clarify how each approach might work and for whom it may be the most appropriate to implement.

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Gavin Breslin, Stephen Shannon, Kyle Ferguson, Shauna Devlin, Tandy Haughey and Garry Prentice

Recent evidence suggests that attempts to tackle mental health stigma in athletes should include psychological theory to understand the competitive sport environment. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the aim was to determine what demographic and psychological factors predicted mental health stigma among athletes. Athletes (n = 471) completed a questionnaire, and a multiple linear regression analyses was conducted, specifying demographic (e.g., gender), psychological (e.g., norms) and moderating variables (e.g., sport type) as predictors of stigma-related intentions to socialise with individuals who are living with a mental health condition. TRA models explained a significant amount of variance for intentions, in which knowledge about and exposure to individuals with mental health conditions significantly predicted better intentions. Further, athletes competing in team sports, particularly females, had stronger intentions. This was the first study to explore mental health stigma using the TRA. Findings can inform the development of mental health awareness programs for athletes.

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Panteleimon Ekkekakis

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) presents an appealing option for investigating hemodynamic changes in the cerebral cortex during exercise. This review examines the physical basis of NIRS and the types of available instruments. Emphasis is placed on the physiological interpretation of NIRS signals. Theories from affective neuroscience and exercise psychobiology, including Davidson's prefrontal asymmetry hypothesis, Dietrich's transient hypofrontality hypothesis, and Ekkekakis's dual-mode model, are reviewed, highlighting the potential for designing NIRS-based tests in the context of exercise. Findings from 28 studies involving acute bouts of exercise are summarized. These studies suggest that the oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex increases during mild-to-moderate exercise and decreases during strenuous exercise, possibly proximally to the respiratory compensation threshold. Future studies designed to test hypotheses informed by psychological theories should help elucidate the significance of these changes for such important concepts as cognition, affect, exertion, and central fatigue.

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Christin Lang, Anna Karina Feldmeth, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Markus Gerber

In most physical education (PE) syllabuses, promoting life skills constitutes an important educational objective. The aim of this study was to implement a coping training program (EPHECT) within regular PE and to evaluate its effects on coping and stress among vocational students. Eight classes from a vocational school were selected for study; four were allocated to the intervention group (IG) and four to the control group (CG). The study examined intervention effects between pre- and postintervention, and postintervention and 6-months follow-up. Compared with the CG, the IG showed improved coping skills from pre- to postintervention. From postintervention to follow-up, stress decreased for the IG. A path analysis suggests an indirect effect on stress perception at follow-up via improved adaptive coping skills. The findings support EPHECT as a positive contribution to the development of adaptive coping skills. The project further shows how physical educators can translate psychological theory into practice.

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Emily Dane-Staples

As accountability and the nature of higher education are changing to an emphasis on teaching, it is critical for faculty to have pedagogical training to develop their classroom skills. Currently, most doctoral programs do not require pedagogical courses therefore faculty must independently seek knowledge on how to engage students and to teach the specifics of sport management. This article discusses the foundations of constructivist learning and some specific teaching strategies relevant for a sport management classroom. Drawing on educational and psychological theory, a six-element framework is outlined where instructors attempt to reach long-term learning, not just a memorization of facts. The overall framework and each element are discussed and then strategies such as the Fishbowl, Active Opinion, Talking in Circles, and group selection options are introduced. The benefit of this approach to the classroom is that it is not topic specific, and can be implemented in a variety of sport management classrooms.

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Kazuhiro Harada, Sangyoon Lee, Sungchul Lee, Seongryu Bae, Yuya Anan, Kenji Harada and Hiroyuki Shimada

, 1975 ) are some of the major psychological theories used in physical activity studies. These theories have proposed that expecting desirable outcomes influences physical activity motivation and behavior ( Williams, Anderson, & Winett, 2005 ). Further, supporting these psychological theories, previous

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Shane Pill and Brendon Hyndman

 al., 2012 ). There has been very little mention of Gestaltist psychology learning theory across the international PE literature. Just one paper to the authors’ knowledge has articulated the value of Gestalt psychological theory in PE and sport for the transferability of learning in PE ( Garcia Lopez

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Cole G. Armstrong, Theodore M. Butryn, Vernon L. Andrews and Matthew A. Masucci

:10.1177/1012690211416358 10.1177/1012690211416358 Curtin , N. , & McGarty , C. ( 2016 ). Expanding on psychological theories of engagement to understand activism in context(s) . Journal of Social Issues, 72 ( 2 ), 227 – 241 . doi:10.1111/josi.12164 10.1111/josi.12164 Djaballah , M

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Gorden Sudeck, Stephanie Jeckel and Tanja Schubert

-being and moves beyond predicting the quantity of PA behavior, which is usually the focus of psychological theories of behavior change like the theory of planned behavior ( Ajzen, 2002 ). In this view, people with high control competence can gear their own PA to optimize physical health benefits, minimize

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Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Niek Pot

lifelong participation can be enhanced by fostering motivation and confidence and physical competence in respect of participation in physical activity ( International Physical Literacy Association, 2017 ). This view is endorsed by a range of current psychological theories, including self