% improved ( n = 4; range: 1–2 rep), the 14% ( n = 2) remained stable, and 57% decreased the performance ( n = 8; range: 1–3 rep). Perceptions of BI, Physical and Mental Health, and FoF Regarding the analysis of the psychological variables (Table 3 ), MANOVA results showed a main effect for time, Wilks λ
Simone Ciaccioni, Laura Capranica, Roberta Forte, Helmi Chaabene, Caterina Pesce and Giancarlo Condello
Karen J. Calfas and Wendell C. Taylor
To identify the most consistent relationships among psychological variables and physical activity in youth (ages 11-21 years), 20 articles on depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, self-concept, hostility, anger, intellectual functioning, and psychiatric disorders were reviewed. Physical activity was consistently related to improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, depressive symptoms, and anxiety/stress. The effect sizes were +.12, -.15, and -.38 for self-esteem/self-concept, stress/anxiety, and depression, respectively. The evidence for hostility/anger and academic achievement was inconclusive. No negative effects of physical activity were reported. The literature suggests that physical activity in youth is psychologically beneficial. More research is needed to confirm previous findings. Adolescents should engage in moderate or vigorous aerobic activity approximately three times per week for a total of at least 60 minutes per week.
Leonard M. Waekel, W. Kerry Mummery, Thomas Stephens and Cora L. Craig
The purpose of the study was to investigate the utility of various social-psychological variables for predicting intentions to engage in physical activity within a national population. More specifically, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and perceived social support measures were utilized to provide modified operationalizations of the theories of planned behavior and reasoned action in order to assess their relative utility for predicting physical activity intentions. Data from the Campbell's Survey of the Weil-Being of Canadians enabled the assessment of the predictive efficacy of the two models in the overall population, as well as in various population subgroups. The theory of planned behavior was found to account for a substantially greater percentage of the behavior intention variance (31%) than did the theory of reasoned action (15%). Further, the study provides some support for the utility of the theory of planned behavior for understanding the activity intentions of different population groups.
John K. Scheer, Charles J. Ansorge and James Howard
Gymnastics judges, scoring videotaped routines, were subjected to false feedback in the form of artificially high or low scores to determine if selected psychological differences between judges would have an effect on the amount of influence observed due to the false feedback. The subjects were 24 certified male gymnastics judges. Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to score routines on a videotape in which, through editing procedures, high falsified scores appeared in the background of the tape following each routine. The remaining subjects scored the same routines from a second tape in which low falsified scores appeared. An ANOVA revealed that judges' scores were significantly affected by the false feedback (p < .001). Further analysis revealed that judges who scored high on dominance, autonomy, deference, and internal locus of control were significantly less influenced than judges who scored low on those variables.
Ruth Boat and Ian M. Taylor
The study explored patterns of change in a number of potentially performance-related variables (i.e., fatigue, social support, self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, mental skills) during the lead-up to a competitive triathlon, and whether these patterns of change differed for relatively superior versus inferior performers. Forty-two triathletes completed an inventory measuring the study variables every other day during a 2-week period leading up to competition. Performance was assessed using participants’ race time, and using a self-referenced relative score compared with personal best times. Multilevel growth curve analyses revealed significant differences in growth trajectories over the 2-week period in mental skills use, social support, and fatigue. The results provide novel insight into how athletes’ fluctuating psychological state in the 2 weeks before competition may be crucial in determining performance.
Ann Pulling Kuhn, Russell L. Carson, Aaron Beighle and Darla M. Castelli
Purpose: This study examined changes in physical education teachers’ psychosocial perspectives after participating in a yearlong professional development about Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming. Method: Twenty-three intervention teachers attended a workshop in Year 1 and received one academic year of technical assistance and mentorship, and 30 control teachers only attended a workshop in Year 2. Both groups completed pre- and post-self-reported measures on teacher efficacy, work engagement, and affective commitment. Results: At posttest, intervention teachers reported significantly higher levels of affective commitment, and a significant positive relationship was revealed between affective commitment and the degree to which before-school physical activity was implemented. More experienced teachers (>20 years) reported significantly higher levels of the work engagement subscale of vigor at posttest. Discussion/Conclusion: Participating in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program professional development may positively influence teachers’ job commitment levels and invigorate more experienced teachers, which may relate to Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program implementation.
Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Bráulio Henrique Magnani Branco, Rogéria Vicentini de Oliveira, José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Júnior, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire and Sônia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini
sedentary behavior, are linked to a reduced risk of psychological variables and other positive mental health outcomes (e.g., depression and anxiety; Teychenne et al., 2019 ). Theoretically, sedentary behavior specifically can be associated with psychological variables through several potential pathways
Aynollah Naderi, Fatemeh Shaabani, Hassan Gharayagh Zandi, Luís Calmeiro and Britton W. Brewer
attention control can play in the rate of acute sport injuries. Hence, the current study expanded on that of Ivarsson, Johnson, Andersen, et al. ( 2015 ) by considering a number of psychological variables that may mediate the effects of mindfulness training on injury susceptibility. Furthermore, we also
Volker Cihlar and Sonia Lippke
associated with a more pronounced engagement in active citizenship. To examine if specific correlations between competing activities and physical activity persist under control for sociodemographic and physical and psychological variables, a stepwise multinomial regression analysis is performed (Table 3
Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield
psychological variables remain worthy of further consideration. The 2D4D has been shown to be predictive of sporting performance ( Meggs & Golby, 2011 ). This could be because the nature of sport performance involves male-typical physical and psychological qualities (e.g., strength, cardiovascular capabilities